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SUBFAMILY Sigmodontinae

Author:Wagner, 1843.
Citation:In Schreber, Die Säugethiere, Suppl.(3): 398.

Priority of family-group name Sigmodontinae, dating from Sigmodontes Wagner, 1843, established by Hershkovitz (1966c) and Reig (1980). Taxonomic and nomenclatural histories of many forms compiled by Tate (1932a-h). Comprehensive and influential alpha-level classifications presented by Gyldenstolpe (1932), Ellerman (1941), and Cabrera (1961). The studies of Carleton (1980), Gardner and Patton (1976), Hershkovitz (1962, 1966b, c), Hooper and Musser (1964), and Reig (1980, 1981, 1984, 1987) contain information on higher-level relationships and classificatory arrangements. For critical overviews of phylogenetic and biogeographic issues, see Hershkovitz (1966b, 1972), Reig (1981, 1984, 1986), D’Elía (2000, 2003), and Pardiñas et al. (2002). Also see commentaries for Neotominae and Tylomyinae, whose genera were formerly arranged within Sigmodontinae, with or without indication of tribal distinction (Carleton and Musser, 1984; McKenna and Bell, 1997; Musser and Carleton, 1993).

For a paleontological background, see Baskin (1978, 1986), Jacobs and Lindsay (1984), Marshall (1979), Reig (1978, 1984), Pardiñas (1999), Pardiñas et al. (2002), Slaughter and Ubelaker (1984), and Simpson (1980). Especially see Pardiñas (1995, 2000a) for redeterminations of Ameghino’s (1889) many descriptions from Pliocene and Pleistocene beds in Argentina, and Pardiñas et al. (2002) for an encyclopedic review of South American fossil taxa and their bearing on the current systematics and biogeographic history of Sigmodontinae. Within South America, earliest known examples of living genera (Auliscomys, Necromys, and possibly Reithrodon) date from the early Pliocene (Montehermosan Formation), and by the late Pliocene, a greater diversity of genera, living and extinct (Abrothrix, Akodon, Cholomys, Dankomys, Graomys, Panchomys, Scapteromys, Wiedomys), has been recorded (Reig, 1978, 1981, 1994; Pardiñas, 1997, 2000a; Pardiñas and Tonni, 1998; Quintana, 2002). By Pleistocene times, many fossils of living genera and species are known, mainly from deposits in Argentina and Brazil (Pardiñas, 1999, 2000a; Pardiñas et al., 2002). A late Pleistocene site in Ecuador contains not only a representative composition of the extant fauna (Akodon, Anotomys, Microryzomys, Phyllotis, Sigmodon, Thomasomys) but also a new genus (Copemyodon) believed to represent a member of the "Copemyne-Peromyscine group" (Fejfar et al., 1993, 1996). In North America, Sigmodon and its possible ancestor Prosigmodon are known from early Pliocene (late Hemphillian) sites in the S USA and N México (Jacobs and Lindsay, 1981; Lindsay and Jacobs, 1985; Martin, 1979). Certain low-crowned tetralophodont forms from the Pliocene of North America (Bensonomys and Symmetrodontomys) have been interpreted as primitive members of Phyllotini and Akodontini (Baskin, 1978, 1986; Czaplewski, 1987; Korth, 1994; Lindsay and Jacobs, 1985), affiliations dismissed by Reig (1980, 1984) as dental convergence. These contrasting views, and their critical bearing on sigmodontine (and neotomine) phylogeny and biogeography, have yet to be satisfactorily reconciled with fresh empirical analyses and from disinterested viewpoints. Using molecular divergence estimates (assuming an Akodon Necromys split at 3.5 million years ago), Smith and Patton (1999) placed the major radiation of sigmodontines within South America at 10-14 million years ago, an interval harmonious with a middle Miocene appearance and well before late Pliocene landbridge formation, as earlier advocated by Hershkovitz (1966b, 1972d) and Reig (1980, 1984).

Following Thomas (1906d, 1916c, 1917c), sigmodontine genera have been informally or formally arranged into tribes (see discussions in Carleton and Musser, 1989; D’Elía, 2000; Hershkovitz, 1966c; Reig, 1981, 1984; Smith and Patton, 1999; Voss, 1993). Confirmatory evidence for the monophyly and formal employment of these suprageneric groupings is vastly improved—especially for the Akodontini (D’Elía, 2003; D’Elía et al., 2003; Reig, 1987; Smith and Patton, 1991, 1993; Steppan, 1995), Ichthyomyini (Voss, 1988), Oryzomyini (Myers et al., 1995; Patton and da Silva, 1995; Smith and Patton, 1999; Steppan, 1995; Voss and Carleton, 1993; Weksler, 2003), and Phyllotini (Braun, 1993; Olds and Anderson, 1989; Ortiz et al., 2000b; Spotorno et al., 2001; Steppan, 1993, 1995)—but much probing phylogenetic investigation of this kind is yet required.

The tribal affiliations cited here basically conform to Reig (1980, 1981, 1984), as modified by Smith and Patton (1999). Notably, we continue to maintain the Thomasomyini (= Aepeomys, Chilomys, Rhipidomys, and Thomasomys) as distinct from the Oryzomyini (see Thomas, 1906d, 1917c; Hershkovitz, 1966c; Carleton and Musser, 1989; Voss and Carleton, 1993); furthermore, we resurrect Vorontsov’s (1959) Reithrodontini for the (Euneomys (Neotomys Reithrodon)) clade (see comments under Reithrodon). An oxymycterine group, as informally used by Hershkovitz (1966c), was never named, and evidence for such a tribe as phyletically distinct from Akodontini has not been forthcoming (Barrantes et al., 1993; D’Elía, 2003; D’Elía et al, 2003; Reig, 1987; Smith and Patton, 1999). Similarly, the scapteromyines of Hershkovitz (1966c), formalized as Scapteromyini by Massoia (1979b; also Reig, 1980, 1981, 1984, and McKenna and Bell, 1997), appear to be polyphyletic and cladistically interspersed among akodontines in molecular studies to date (D’Elía, 2003; D’Elía et al., in press; Smith and Patton, 1999). On the other hand, a congruent body of evidence reveals that certain genera currently aligned within Akodontini, here parenthetically identified as the Southern Andean clade, may eventually warrant tribal recognition (Barrantes et al., 1993; D’Elía, 2003; D’Elía et al., 2003; Reig, 1986, 1987; Smith and Patton, 1999; Spotorno et al., 1990); this possibility should be pursued and framed within a full and proper diagnosis. An intractable residuum of genera, many of them the "plesiomorphic Neotropical muroids" enumerated by Voss (1993), so far refuses to disclose their genealogical secrets, whether based on morphological or molecular information, and are noted as Sigmodontinae incertae sedis (see Table 1).

Faunal treatises and annotated checklists are becoming more available, providing taxonomic, distributional, and bibliographic compilations for Sigmodontinae, on both continental (Eisenberg, 1989; Eisenberg and Redford, 1999; Emmons and Feer, 1997; Redford and Eisenberg, 1992) and regional scales (Argentina—Braun and Mares [1995b], Chebez and Massoia [1996], Díaz [2000], Díaz and Barquez [1999], Galliari et al. [1996], Heinonen Fortabat and Chebez [1997], Mares et al. [1981b, 1989b, 1997]; Pardiñas et al. [2003b]; Bolivia—Anderson [1993, 1997], Anderson et al. [1993], Salazar-Bravo et al. [2003]; Brazil—Avila-Pires [1994], Fonseca et al. [1996]; Chile— Muñoz-Pedreros [2000]; Colombia—Alberico et al. [2000]; Ecuador—Tirira [1999, 2000]; Panamá—Mendez [1993]; Paraguay—Gamarra de Fox and Martin [1996]; Perú—Pacheco et al. [1995]; Surinam—Husson [1978]; Uruguay—González [2000b, 2001], Mones [2001], Mones and Philippi [1992]; Venezuela—Linares [1998]). The amount of taxonomic detail, extent of specimen documentation, and primary literature attribution presented in the aforementioned works vary greatly.



GENUS Abrawayaomys

SPECIES ruschii

GENUS Abrothrix

SPECIES andinus

SPECIES hershkovitzi

SPECIES illuteus

SPECIES jelskii

SPECIES lanosus

SPECIES longipilis

SPECIES markhami

SPECIES olivaceus

SPECIES sanborni

GENUS Aepeomys

SPECIES lugens


GENUS Akodon

SPECIES aerosus

SPECIES bogotensis


SPECIES affinis

SPECIES albiventer

SPECIES aliquantulus

SPECIES azarae

SPECIES boliviensis

SPECIES cursor


SPECIES dolores

SPECIES fumeus

SPECIES iniscatus

SPECIES juninensis

SPECIES kofordi

SPECIES leucolimnaeus

SPECIES lindberghi

SPECIES lutescens

SPECIES molinae

SPECIES mollis

SPECIES montensis

SPECIES mystax

SPECIES neocenus


SPECIES orophilus

SPECIES paranaensis

SPECIES pervalens


SPECIES sanctipaulensis

SPECIES serrensis

SPECIES simulator

SPECIES spegazzinii

SPECIES subfuscus

SPECIES surdus

SPECIES sylvanus


SPECIES torques

SPECIES varius


SPECIES budini

SPECIES siberiae


SPECIES latebricola


GENUS Amphinectomys

SPECIES savamis

GENUS Andalgalomys

SPECIES olrogi

SPECIES pearsoni


GENUS Andinomys


GENUS Anotomys

SPECIES leander

GENUS Auliscomys

SPECIES boliviensis

SPECIES pictus

SPECIES sublimis

GENUS Bibimys

SPECIES chacoensis

SPECIES labiosus

SPECIES torresi

GENUS Blarinomys

SPECIES breviceps

GENUS Brucepattersonius

SPECIES albinasus

SPECIES griserufescens

SPECIES guarani

SPECIES igniventris

SPECIES iheringi

SPECIES misionensis

SPECIES paradisus

SPECIES soricinus

GENUS Calomys

SPECIES boliviae

SPECIES callidus

SPECIES callosus

SPECIES expulsus

SPECIES hummelincki

SPECIES laucha

SPECIES lepidus

SPECIES musculinus

SPECIES sorellus


SPECIES tocantinsi

SPECIES venustus

GENUS Chelemys

SPECIES delfini

SPECIES macronyx

SPECIES megalonyx

GENUS Chibchanomys

SPECIES orcesi

SPECIES trichotis

GENUS Chilomys

SPECIES instans

GENUS Chinchillula

SPECIES sahamae

GENUS Delomys

SPECIES collinus

SPECIES dorsalis

SPECIES sublineatus

GENUS Deltamys


GENUS Eligmodontia

SPECIES moreni

SPECIES morgani

SPECIES puerulus


GENUS Euneomys

SPECIES chinchilloides

SPECIES fossor

SPECIES mordax

SPECIES petersoni

GENUS Galenomys

SPECIES garleppi

GENUS Geoxus

SPECIES valdivianus

GENUS Graomys

SPECIES centralis

SPECIES domorum

SPECIES edithae

SPECIES griseoflavus

GENUS Handleyomys

SPECIES fuscatus

SPECIES intectus

GENUS Holochilus

SPECIES brasiliensis

SPECIES chacarius

SPECIES sciureus

GENUS Ichthyomys

SPECIES hydrobates

SPECIES pittieri

SPECIES stolzmanni

SPECIES tweedii

GENUS Irenomys

SPECIES tarsalis

GENUS Juliomys

SPECIES pictipes

SPECIES rimofrons

GENUS Juscelinomys

SPECIES candango

SPECIES guaporensis

SPECIES huanchacae

GENUS Kunsia

SPECIES fronto

SPECIES tomentosus

GENUS Lenoxus

SPECIES apicalis

GENUS Loxodontomys

SPECIES micropus

SPECIES pikumche

GENUS Lundomys

SPECIES molitor

GENUS Megalomys

SPECIES desmarestii

SPECIES luciae

GENUS Megaoryzomys

SPECIES curioi

GENUS Melanomys

SPECIES caliginosus

SPECIES robustulus

SPECIES zunigae

GENUS Microakodontomys

SPECIES transitorius

GENUS Microryzomys

SPECIES altissimus

SPECIES minutus

GENUS Neacomys

SPECIES dubosti

SPECIES guianae

SPECIES minutus

SPECIES musseri

SPECIES paracou

SPECIES pictus

SPECIES spinosus

SPECIES tenuipes

GENUS Necromys

SPECIES amoenus

SPECIES benefactus

SPECIES lactens

SPECIES lasiurus

SPECIES lenguarum

SPECIES obscurus

SPECIES punctulatus

SPECIES temchuki

SPECIES urichi

GENUS Nectomys

SPECIES apicalis

SPECIES magdalenae

SPECIES palmipes

SPECIES rattus

SPECIES squamipes

GENUS Neotomys

SPECIES ebriosus

GENUS Nesoryzomys

SPECIES darwini

SPECIES fernandinae

SPECIES indefessus

SPECIES swarthi

GENUS Neusticomys

SPECIES monticolus

SPECIES mussoi

SPECIES oyapocki

SPECIES peruviensis

SPECIES venezuelae

GENUS Noronhomys

SPECIES vespuccii

GENUS Notiomys

SPECIES edwardsii

GENUS Oecomys

SPECIES auyantepui

SPECIES bicolor

SPECIES catherinae

SPECIES cleberi

SPECIES concolor

SPECIES flavicans

SPECIES mamorae

SPECIES paricola

SPECIES phaeotis


SPECIES roberti

SPECIES rutilus

SPECIES speciosus

SPECIES superans

SPECIES trinitatis

GENUS Oligoryzomys

SPECIES andinus

SPECIES arenalis

SPECIES brendae

SPECIES chacoensis

SPECIES delticola

SPECIES destructor

SPECIES eliurus

SPECIES flavescens

SPECIES fornesi

SPECIES fulvescens

SPECIES griseolus

SPECIES longicaudatus

SPECIES magellanicus

SPECIES microtis

SPECIES nigripes

SPECIES stramineus

SPECIES vegetus

SPECIES victus

GENUS Oryzomys

SPECIES albigularis

SPECIES alfaroi

SPECIES angouya

SPECIES auriventer

SPECIES balneator

SPECIES bolivaris

SPECIES caracolus

SPECIES chapmani

SPECIES couesi

SPECIES curasoae

SPECIES devius

SPECIES dimidiatus

SPECIES emmonsae

SPECIES galapagoensis

SPECIES gorgasi

SPECIES hammondi

SPECIES keaysi


SPECIES laticeps

SPECIES legatus

SPECIES levipes

SPECIES macconnelli

SPECIES maracajuensis

SPECIES marinhus

SPECIES megacephalus

SPECIES melanotis

SPECIES meridensis

SPECIES nelsoni

SPECIES nitidus

SPECIES palustris

SPECIES perenensis

SPECIES polius

SPECIES rhabdops

SPECIES rostratus

SPECIES russatus

SPECIES saturatior

SPECIES scotti

SPECIES seuanezi

SPECIES subflavus

SPECIES talamancae


SPECIES xanthaeolus

SPECIES yunganus

GENUS Oxymycterus

SPECIES akodontius

SPECIES amazonicus

SPECIES angularis

SPECIES caparoae

SPECIES dasytrichus

SPECIES delator


SPECIES hispidus

SPECIES hucucha



SPECIES nasutus

SPECIES paramensis

SPECIES quaestor

SPECIES roberti


GENUS Paralomys

SPECIES gerbillus

GENUS Pearsonomys

SPECIES annectens

GENUS Phaenomys

SPECIES ferrugineus

GENUS Phyllotis

SPECIES amicus

SPECIES andium

SPECIES bonariensis

SPECIES caprinus

SPECIES darwini

SPECIES definitus

SPECIES haggardi

SPECIES limatus

SPECIES magister

SPECIES osgoodi

SPECIES osilae

SPECIES wolffsohni

SPECIES xanthopygus

GENUS Podoxymys

SPECIES roraimae

GENUS Pseudoryzomys

SPECIES simplex

GENUS Punomys

SPECIES kofordi

SPECIES lemminus

GENUS Reithrodon

SPECIES auritus

SPECIES typicus

GENUS Rhagomys

SPECIES longilingua

SPECIES rufescens

GENUS Rheomys

SPECIES mexicanus

SPECIES raptor

SPECIES thomasi

SPECIES underwoodi

GENUS Rhipidomys

SPECIES austrinus

SPECIES caucensis

SPECIES couesi

SPECIES emiliae

SPECIES fulviventer

SPECIES gardneri

SPECIES latimanus

SPECIES leucodactylus

SPECIES macconnelli

SPECIES macrurus

SPECIES mastacalis

SPECIES modicus

SPECIES nitela

SPECIES ochrogaster

SPECIES venezuelae

SPECIES venustus

SPECIES wetzeli

GENUS Salinomys

SPECIES delicatus

GENUS Scapteromys

SPECIES aquaticus

SPECIES tumidus

GENUS Scolomys

SPECIES melanops

SPECIES ucayalensis

GENUS Sigmodon


SPECIES alleni

SPECIES arizonae

SPECIES fulviventer

SPECIES hirsutus

SPECIES hispidus

SPECIES inopinatus

SPECIES leucotis

SPECIES mascotensis

SPECIES ochrognathus

SPECIES peruanus

SPECIES planifrons

SPECIES toltecus

SPECIES zanjonensis


SPECIES alstoni

GENUS Sigmodontomys

SPECIES alfari

SPECIES aphrastus

GENUS Tapecomys

SPECIES primus

GENUS Thalpomys

SPECIES cerradensis

SPECIES lasiotis

GENUS Thaptomys

SPECIES nigrita

GENUS Thomasomys


SPECIES aureus

SPECIES baeops

SPECIES bombycinus

SPECIES caudivarius

SPECIES cinereiventer

SPECIES cinereus

SPECIES cinnameus

SPECIES daphne

SPECIES eleusis


SPECIES gracilis

SPECIES hudsoni

SPECIES hylophilus

SPECIES incanus

SPECIES ischyrus

SPECIES kalinowskii

SPECIES ladewi

SPECIES laniger

SPECIES macrotis

SPECIES monochromos

SPECIES niveipes

SPECIES notatus

SPECIES onkiro


SPECIES paramorum

SPECIES popayanus

SPECIES praetor

SPECIES pyrrhonotus

SPECIES rhoadsi

SPECIES rosalinda

SPECIES silvestris

SPECIES taczanowskii

SPECIES ucucha

SPECIES vestitus

SPECIES vulcani

GENUS Wiedomys

SPECIES pyrrhorhinos

GENUS Wilfredomys


GENUS Zygodontomys

SPECIES brevicauda

SPECIES brunneus


    Akodontini Vorontsov, 1959
    Hesperomyinae Murray, 1866
    Hesperomyes Winge, 1887
    Hesperomyidae Ameghino, 1889
    Hesperomyini Simpson, 1945
    Ichthyomyini Vorontsov, 1959
    Oryzomyini Vorontsov, 1959
    Phyllotiini Vorontsov, 1959
    Phyllotini Reig, 1980
    Reithrodonini Vorontsov, 1959
    Reithrodontini Reig, 1980
    Reithrodontina Steppan, 1995
    Scapteromyini Massoia, 1979
    Sigmodontes Wagner, 1843
    Sigmodontinae Thomas, 1896
    Sigmodonini Vorontsov, 1959
    Sigmodontini Hershkovitz, 1966
    Thomasomyini Steadman and Ray, 1982
    Wiedomyini Reig, 1980
    Zygodontomyini Eisenberg, 1989

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