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SUBFAMILY Neotominae

Author:Merriam, 1894.
Citation:Proc. Philadelphia Acad. Sci, 1894: 228.

Merriam’s (1894) definition of the subfamily included North American woodrats and certain South American fossils with high-crowned molars (Ptyssophorus and Tretomys, now considered synonyms of Reithrodon by Pardiñas, 2000a). Usage as a formal subfamily was observed (e.g., Miller and Rehn, 1901; Miller, 1912b) until Miller and Gidley (1918) considered the genera to be members of a diverse Cricetinae, as did Ellerman (1940) and Simpson (1945). A broadened family-group concept reemerged in an informal way as the "neotomine-peromyscines" (Hooper, 1960; Hooper and Musser, 1964a; Carleton, 1980) and was eventually nomenclaturally recognized as distinct from sigmodontines, whether as a tribe (Hershkovitz, 1966b, as Peromyscini) or subfamily (Reig, 1980, 1981, as Neotominae). Phylogenetic diagnosis and cladistic demonstration of neotomine monophyly remain ambiguous based on taxonomically broad surveys of morphological traits (Carleton, 1973, 1980; Steppan, 1995; Voss and Linzey, 1981) or cytochrome b data (D’Elía et al., 2003), but not other mitochondrial genes (Engel et al., 1998) or mitochondrial and nuclear genes in combination (D’Elía, 2003). Coupled with this uncertainty is that of the sister-group relationship between neotomines and sigmodontines (see D’Elía, 2000, for review), as assumed in evolutionary narratives (e.g., Hershkovitz, 1966b; Marshall, 1979; Patterson and Pascual, 1972) and early interpretations of phylogeny (Hooper and Musser, 1964a). Other cognate possibilities, such as arvicolines and Old World cricetines, are variously implicated in phylogenetic studies of morphology (Carleton, 1980), of DNA-DNA hybridization (Catzeflis et al., 1993), and of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences (D’Elía, 2003; D’Elía et al., 2003; Engel et al., 1998; Michaux et al., 2001b).

The ancestry of extant neotomines has been loosely connected to Copemys (Jacobs and Lindsay, 1984; Slaughter and Ubelaker, 1984), a middle Miocene-early Pliocene North American cricetid that has been variously invoked as progenitor of Peromyscus (Lindsay, 1972), Onychomys (Jacobs, 1977b), and Bensonomys (Baskin, 1978). The morphological limits and specific contents of Copemys are poorly understood, however, and its evolutionary relationships and biogeographic origin have been subject to several, sometimes contradictory, interpretations (see commentary and references in Carleton and Musser [1984:306-308], Baskin [1986:296], and Korth [1994:231-232]). Examples of extant genera are known from the late Miocene (Neotoma and Peromyscus), and others appear in early Pliocene strata (Baiomys, Onychomys, Reithrodontomys) (Carleton and Eshelman, 1979; Korth, 1994; Packard, 1960; Zakrewski, 1993).

Periodic synopses of systematic understanding and distributions provided by Miller and Rehn (1901), Miller (1924), Hall and Kelson (1959), and Hall (1981). Recent faunal treatises update and summarize, in varying detail, aspects of natural history, distribution, biogeography, and specific and-or infraspecific taxonomy: North America (Baker et al., 2003b; Jones et al., 1997; Wilson and Ruff, 1999) and the E USA (Whitaker and Hamilton, 1998); Honduras (Marineros and Gallegos, 1998) and Central America (Reid, 1997); México (Ceballos et al., 2002a; Ramírez-Pulido et al., 1996), NW México (Alvarez-Castañeda and Cortés-Calva, 1999), and the states of Baja California (Hafner and Riddle, 1997), Chiapas (Espinoza M. et al., 1999a, b), Jalisco (Guerrero Vázquez et al., 1995), México (Ramírez-Pulido et al., 1995), Morelos (Alvarez-Castañeda, 1996; Alvarez et al. 1998), Sonora (Caire, 1997), and Quintana Roo (Pozo de la Tijera and Escobedo Cabrera, 1999).



GENUS Baiomys

SPECIES musculus

SPECIES taylori

GENUS Habromys

SPECIES chinanteco

SPECIES delicatulus

SPECIES ixtlani

SPECIES lepturus

SPECIES lophurus

SPECIES simulatus

GENUS Hodomys

SPECIES alleni

GENUS Isthmomys

SPECIES flavidus

SPECIES pirrensis

GENUS Megadontomys

SPECIES cryophilus

SPECIES nelsoni

SPECIES thomasi

GENUS Nelsonia

SPECIES goldmani

SPECIES neotomodon

GENUS Neotoma


SPECIES albigula

SPECIES angustapalata

SPECIES anthonyi

SPECIES bryanti

SPECIES bunkeri

SPECIES chrysomelas


SPECIES floridana

SPECIES fuscipes

SPECIES goldmani

SPECIES lepida

SPECIES leucodon

SPECIES macrotis

SPECIES magister

SPECIES martinensis

SPECIES mexicana

SPECIES micropus

SPECIES nelsoni

SPECIES palatina

SPECIES stephensi


SPECIES cinerea


SPECIES phenax

GENUS Neotomodon

SPECIES alstoni

GENUS Ochrotomys

SPECIES nuttalli

GENUS Onychomys

SPECIES arenicola

SPECIES leucogaster

SPECIES torridus

GENUS Osgoodomys

SPECIES banderanus

GENUS Peromyscus

SPECIES attwateri

SPECIES aztecus

SPECIES beatae

SPECIES boylii

SPECIES bullatus

SPECIES californicus

SPECIES caniceps

SPECIES crinitus

SPECIES dickeyi

SPECIES difficilis

SPECIES eremicus


SPECIES fraterculus

SPECIES furvus

SPECIES gossypinus

SPECIES grandis

SPECIES gratus

SPECIES guardia

SPECIES guatemalensis

SPECIES gymnotis

SPECIES hooperi

SPECIES hylocetes

SPECIES interparietalis


SPECIES leucopus

SPECIES levipes

SPECIES madrensis

SPECIES maniculatus

SPECIES mayensis

SPECIES megalops

SPECIES mekisturus

SPECIES melanocarpus

SPECIES melanophrys

SPECIES melanotis

SPECIES melanurus

SPECIES merriami

SPECIES mexicanus

SPECIES nasutus

SPECIES ochraventer

SPECIES pectoralis

SPECIES pembertoni

SPECIES perfulvus

SPECIES polionotus

SPECIES polius

SPECIES pseudocrinitus


SPECIES sejugis

SPECIES simulus

SPECIES slevini

SPECIES spicilegus

SPECIES stephani

SPECIES stirtoni


SPECIES winkelmanni

SPECIES yucatanicus

SPECIES zarhynchus

GENUS Podomys

SPECIES floridanus

GENUS Reithrodontomys

SUBGENUS Reithrodontomys


SPECIES chrysopsis

SPECIES fulvescens

SPECIES hirsutus

SPECIES humulis

SPECIES megalotis

SPECIES montanus

SPECIES raviventris

SPECIES sumichrasti

SPECIES zacatecae


SPECIES brevirostris

SPECIES creper

SPECIES darienensis

SPECIES gracilis

SPECIES mexicanus

SPECIES microdon

SPECIES paradoxus

SPECIES rodriguezi

SPECIES spectabilis

SPECIES tenuirostris

GENUS Scotinomys

SPECIES teguina

SPECIES xerampelinus

GENUS Xenomys

SPECIES nelsoni


    Baiomyini Musser and Carleton, 2005 [new tribe]
    Neotominae Merriam, 1894
    Neotomini Vorontsov, 1959
    Ochrotomyini Musser and Carleton, 2005 [new tribe]
    Onychomyini Vorontsov, 1959
    Peromyscini Hershkovitz, 1966b
    Reithrodontomyini Vorontsov, 1959

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