To speak another language is to possess another soul.


Instructor Robert Beard
Office 241 Vaughan Literature
Office Hours MWF 2:00-3:00 or by appointment
Telephone: 524-1336
Latest News


I really do not know that anything has ever been more exciting than diagraming sentences.
--Gertrude Stein

Course Objectives

Course Management & Organization

Course Grading

Course Readings

Course Roster

The Linguistics 110   On-Line Toolbox

Second Chances If you are dissatisfied with the grade you receive on any graded homework assignment or ARO you may do additional work to improve your grade. The links below will be activated after the graded homework on the topic has been returned. Choose below the section of the course you wish to do additional work for and submit the work within a week of receiving the grade that dissatifies you. That grade will be averaged with the original grade for your grade on the assignment in question. Second chance work is treated as a take-home quiz: you must do it on your own without discussing it with anyone.


While LN 110 is a self-contained course which teaches many linguistic terms, there is a set of basic terms which will help things run more smoothly in the course. The best way to review these basic terms before or during the course is with Jerry Mead's Glossary Wizard. To use Glossary Wizard simply click the category or categories you want to review. You might like to 'Review the Selected Categories' first, to get an idea of the number and nature of the terms in that category. The next step is to see if you can match term to definition and vice versa. As a final check, you probably would want to try the electronic 'Flash Cards' to test you ability to define each term.

Cybereview Sessions Professor Beard's Virtual Office will be open for homework and ARO review sessions. Times will be announced in the banner, the syllabus, and in class. The purpose of the virtual review sessions is to provide a venue for discussing homework problems with the instructor while you are doing them. Our thanks goes to John Wilkins for assistance made Cybereview possible.

Lexicon of Linguistics. For a more thorough listing of all linguistic terminology you may use this dictionary of terms prepared by OTS of the University of Utrecht. While it does not offter the self-testing mechanisms of Glossary Wizard, it does contain very accurate definitions of virtually all the specialized terms of linguistics.

Linguistics 105 Fonts Linguistics fonts are installed in the computer laboratories in Taylor 204 and Rooke 17. In order to use them, you have to (re)start the computer in Windows 95 mode (not Windows NT). You do that be selecting Windows 95 from the menu on the screen at startup before Windows NT, the default operating system, loads.

If you are using the Windows platform, you may download the Linguistics 105 fonts by clicking here. They are in a self-extracting file. Download it into your a temporary file, then go to it via Windows Explorer or 'My Computer' and double click the file lingfont.exe. That file will automatically expand into five TTF font files, several keyboard files, and a text file. Next, open the 'Fonts' folder in 'Control Panel' (in your 'My Computer' file) and under 'File', choose 'Install Fonts'. Select the five TTF fonts in your temporary file.

If you are using a MacIntosh, you may download the Linguistics 105 fonts here. Save the file to your desktop then drag and drop it into your Unstuffit' file. Double click the .sea file which Unstuffit generates and an LN 105 font folder will appear. Drag the two fonts in that folder to your system folder.

On either platform, once the Linguistic 105 fonts are installed in your computer, you must install them in your browser. Here is how you do that.

  • Netscape Communicator 4.05 or 4.5: Go to the menu 'Edit / Preferences / Fonts' and select 'For the encoding: User Defined'. Choose 'Linguistics 105' for your user-defined proportional font and 'Courier LN 105' for your user-defined fixed-width font, then click 'OK'. Next, return to the 'View' or 'Options' menu and at the very bottom and under 'Character Set' or 'Document Encoding', select 'User Defined'. You are now ready to do the phonetic exercises for Linguistics 105.

  • MS Internet Explorer: Under 'View / Internet Options' choose 'Fonts'. On the font menu select 'User Defined' and set the proportional font for 'Linguistics 105' and the fixed-width font for 'Courier LN 105'. Click 'OK' until you are back in your browser. Next open 'View / Fonts' and select 'User Defined.

  • To Type IPA Symbols you will need the LN105 Keyboard Manager. Unfortunately, this is available only for the Windows platform. Return to the TEMP file where you downloaded and unpacked LINGFONT.EXE. Read the 'Readme.txt' file for instructions on how to set up the keyboard (or just double-click SETUP.EXE and accept all the defaults).

Languages of the World Click here to go to an index of on-line grammars of a wide array of languages from around the world: English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Bengali, Dutch, Hebrew, Latin, Quechua, Seneca, Welsh, Swahili--and more are being added every day.

Sagittal Section Exercises These special exercises, created by Mary Beth James, Patrick Leary and Randy Faust of Bucknell's CCS Multimedia Development Team, allow you to see where the tongue is placed when you pronounce the basic phonemes of US English. These exercises require that you Get Shocked!.

C o u r s e    S c h e d u l e
LF=Language Files; ODA=O'Grady, Dobrovolsky & Aronoff

January 19 0. Introduction to the Course LF 1.1 Course Objectives
Wednesday What is Linguistics?  

January 21 What is Language?
Friday Video: from The Human Language Series

January 24 1. What is Language?

January 26 2. Categories of Language Read ODA 5.1
Wednesday Review the categories yourself Read LF 6.2 Lexical Categories

January 28 2. Categories of Language Read LF 6.3 Phrasal Categories
Friday Review the categories yourself Read LF 6.4 Subcategories

January 31 3. Paying Your Syntax
Monday Syntactic Fun! Read ODA 5.2 & 216-20: How to build trees
*Write out ODA, 220-1, Exercises 2 & 4

February 2 4. Representing Phrase Structure Read ODA 5.3
Wednesday In-Class Exercises: Headlines (1-10) Prepare 'Headlines' to left
LF 6.5 Phrase Structure

February 4 Talking Heads
Friday In-Class Exercises: Headlines (11-20) Write out ODA, 221, 5-6

February 7 5. Clauses in Clauses in . . . Read ODA 5.3 & LF 6.6 Transformations
Monday Write out ODA, 222, 10

February 9 6. Santa Isn't the Only Clause that Moves Read ODA 5.4-5.5
Wednesday GRADED: Write out ODA, 223, 12-14

February 11 Review of Syntax Write out ODA, 223-4, 15-17
Friday Read ODA Student Linguist, 225-7

February 14 7. The Meaning of Meaning
Monday Read ODA 7.1

February 16 8. The Semantics of Words Read ODA 7.2
Wednesday In-class exercises: Headlines Read LF 7.1 What is Meaning?
How meanings are connected Read LF 7.2 Semantic Relationship
Write out ODA, 280-1 1-2, 6

February 18 9. The Semantics of Phrases Read ODA 7.3
Friday Read LF 7.3 Semantic Composition

February 21 10. The Architecture of Meaning Read ODA 7.4
Monday Semantic Fun GRADED: Write out ODA, 283-4, 13-15

February 23 11. Pragmatics: Speech Context Read ODA 7.4
Wednesday Gestures Read LF 8.2 Speech Acts
Read LF 8.1 Meaning & Context

February 25 12. Language & Mind Read The Student Linguist, ODA 285-7
Friday Review Semantics Read LF 14.1 Whorf Hypothesis & 14.2 Color Terms
Read ODA Student Linguist, 285-7

February 27 On-line Cybereview Click here at 10:00 pm
Sunday Professor Beard's Virtual Office
Identification Review for ARO No. 1

February 28 Jumping with Joy!ARO Syntax & Semantics

March 1 13. Phonetic Transcription Read ODA 2.1, 2.7-2.8
Wednesday Review Syntax & Semantics ARO LF 3.1 The sounds of speech
Sagittal Section Vowels

March 3 14. Phonetic Transcription Read ODA 2.2-2.5
Friday Sagittal Section Consonants Write out ODA pp. 50, 1-6 (a-h only)

March 6 15. Properties of Vowels Read ODA 2.9-2.11, LF 3.6 Natural classes
Monday Class Exercises: Vowels Read LF 3.3 Articulation of Vowels
Vowel Self-Check

March 8 16. Properties of Consonants Read ODA 2.6
Wednesday Class Exercises: Consonants Read LF 3.2 Articulation of consonants
Consonant Self-Check Write out Problem No. 1

March 10 Review of Phonetics Read ODA pp. 51-53, "Student Linguist"
Friday Write out Problem No. 2

Spring BREAK, not HOLIDAY!

March 20 17. Linguistic Relativity Read ODA, 12.1
MondayRead LF 12.1 Introduction to Language Variation

March 2218. SociolinguisticsRead ODA, 12.1
Wednesday Read LF 12.2 Variation at Different Levels
US Slang

March 24Video: American Tongues

March 2719. Regional Dialects--Northern USRead ORA 12.3-12.4
MondayRead LF 12.4 Language & Region

March 29 20. Regional Dialects--Southern US

March 3121. Regional Dialects--The WorldRead LF 12.6 Variation in Speech Style

April 322. Gender & LanguageRead ODA 12.5
MondayRacism in Mock SpanishRead ODA 12.2-3 (Gender & Language)

April 523. The 'Ebonics' DebateRead LF 12.5 Language & Ethnicity
Wednesday Ebonics Resources Read Oakland Resolution & LSA Resolution
Read Fillmore's essay

April 724. Pidgins & CreolesRead ODA 12.4
FridayRead LF 11.1 Language Contact
Read LF 11.2 Pidgins & LF 11.3 Creoles

April 10Review SociolinguisticsRead ODA, 463-4, Student Linguist
MondayDialects Review & HomeworkGRADED: Translate the sentences in the Dialects Review
Identification Review ARO No. 2

April 12Jumping with ARO Joy!ARO: Sociolinguistics & Phonetics
WednesdayIdentification Review ARO No. 2

April 14Review ARO SociolinguisticsRead ODA 15.1-15.2
FridayIntro to Computational LinguisticsRead LF 14.4 Language & Computers
Read LF 14.5 Speech Synthesis

April 1725. Speech SynthesisRead ODA 15.3-15.6
MondayRead LF 14.5 Speech Synthesis

April 1926. Computational Syntax & SemanticsRead ODA 15.3-15.6

April 21 27. Writing Systems Read ODA 13.1-13.4
Friday Ancient Scripts of the World Read LF 14.6 Writing Systems
All the Scripts in the World ODA 13.1-13.2
Write your name in Mayan glyphs

April 2428. OrthographyODA 13.5
Monday Lawrence Lo "History of the Alphabet" Alphabets
Egyptian heiroglyphs I
Egyptian heiroglyphs II
Write your name in heiroglyphics

April 26Review Computational Linguistics
& Writing Systems

April 28 Jump for Joy!ARO Computation & Writing
Friday Identification Review ARO No. 3

May 1 Review of the Course

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"The Girl from Ipanema"

by the inimitable Antonio Carlos Jobim
Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837
©1996 Robert Beard