|Linguistics 110 Linguistic Analysis: Sentences & Dialects|
|Lecture Number Four|
|Representing Phrase Structure|
|I really do not know that anything has ever|
been more exciting than diagramming sentences.
|Universal Structure of All Phrases|
|XP > Spec + X'|
|(X' > AP + X') optional|
|X' > X + Comp|
|A Phrase-Structure Grammar of English|
|(1)||CP > C + S||ADJUNCT RULES|
|(2)||S > NP + VP|
|(3)||VP > Aux + V'||(a) (X' > AP/PP + X')|
|(4)||V' > V (NP) (PP) (AP) (CP)||(b) AP > Deg + A'|
|(5)||NP > Det + N'||(c) A' > A (NP?) (PP) (CP)|
|(6)||N' > N (NP) (PP) (CP)|
|(7)||PP > Deg + P'|
|(8)||P' > P (NP) (PP) (CP)|
Phrases are held together by a complementizer phrase, [CPs] (not to be confused with complement phrases) as illustrated in the following diagram of a verbal complement.
Where CP = Complementizer Phrase, NP = "noun phrase", VP ="verb phrase", C = "complementizer", V, N, P, A ="verb, noun, preposition, and adjective".