The process of breaking down the medieval view of
the cosmos was a long one, dependent on the work of such greats
as Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo. But it was Isaac Newton's
laws that finally provided the genius of synthesis necessary to
explain how and why the planets moved.
Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) attempted
to reconcile astronomical observations with the church-accepted
view of the universe. He knew that the idea of a geocentric universe
was not supported by the astronomy, but he maintained that the planets
revolve around the sun, while the sun annually describes a circle
around the earth. This satisfied the church - Earth was still at
the center of the cosmos.