/h/ initially; drops elsewhere,
except word finally after rounded vowels:
a. heovan, helpan, head
b. night, bought, right
c. laugh, cough, tough (but: though, thorough)
5. Loss of /h/ before sonorants:
hlaf > laf "loaf, bread"
hroof > roof
hnoll > (k)noll "top of head"
Middle English to Modern English
5. The Great Vowel Shift (1400-1600): All long vowels shifted upwards one level while the high vowels became diphthongs. The short vowels remained pretty much unchanged.
|The Great English Vowel Shift|
|night, light, tid(e), side||/i/||/u:/||loud, shout, house|
|three, beet, meet, eel||/e:/||/o:/||shoot, boot, good, look|
|meat, beat, seal||/ê:/|
|/Ø:/||broken, stone, globe, boat|
shake, gate, shade
Compounds replaced by French terms; technical terms borrow from French and Latin
boc-hord 'book-hoard' : "library"
folc-riht 'folk-right' : "common law"
galdor-craeft 'incantation-skill' : "magic"
ni-fara 'new-farer' : "stranger"
rain, snow: precipitation
Selected semantic changes
tid = time
faran "travel by vehicle (farewell, welfare)"
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