Linguistics 105 * Words and Sounds
Lecture Number Twenty Three
Indo-European Etymology



1. *bher- "take, carry"

Sanskrit bhar-ami "I carry"
Latin fer-o "I carry"
Greek pher-ein "to carry"
Slavic ber-on "I take"
Gothic baþr-a "I carry"
English bear . . .

2. *ghor-dho-/gher-dho-/ghr-dho- (with Ablaut)

*ghrdh- Old English gurdjan "to gird"
*gherdh- Old English geard "yard"
*ghordh- Gothic *gardaz "garden"
*ghordh-os Latin hort-us "garden" (horticulture)
*ghordh-os Greek ?khor-us "dancing enclosure?"
*ghordh-os Slavic grad-Ì "city" Russian gorod

3. *pod-/ped-/pd- "foot" (with Ablaut)

Sanskrit pad-am "foot"
Latin ped-is "food"
Greek pod-a "foot"
Germanic fot-u English foot/feet
German Fuss
Slavic pod-Ì "floor, under"

4. *dhum-os "smoke"

Sanskrit dhum-ah "smoke"
Greek fum-os, Êum-os "spirit"
Latin fum-us "smoke"
Slavic dym-Ì "smoke"
Germanic English dim (?) . . .
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