In the year 1497, in the month of September, the Grand Prince of all Rus' Ivan Vasilievic, with his children and boyars, compiled a code of law on how boyars and major-domos (okolnichii) are to administer justice.
Article 1. Boyars and major-domos are to administer justice. Secretaries (djaki) also shall be present at the court of boyars and major-domos. Neither the boyars, the major-domos nor the secretaries are to receive bribes for a judgement or participating in the judging of a case. Likewise no judge is to receive a bribe for a judgement. And no one is to use the court for purposes of [personal] revenge or favor. Article 2. And if a plaintiff shall come to a boyar, he is not to dismiss the plaintiffs [sic], but shall give a hearing in all matters to all plaintiffs for whom it is proper. But whenever there is a plaintiff whom it is not proper for him to hear, he shall inform the Grand Prince or send him (the plaintiff) to whomever has been ordered to administer such people. Article 3. Both the boyar and secretary are to take from the guilty party, whether plaintiff or defendant, out of a ruble case: the boyar two altyns, the secretary eight dengi. And if the case involves more than a ruble or less, the boyar shall take [fees] in the same proportion.
Concerning Fees for Judicial Duels Article 4. And if a case is to be tried by judicial duel but the parties become reconciled without having stood in the dueling field, the boyar and the secretary are to take [fees] in the same proportion: the boyar two altyns per ruble, the secretary eight dengi; but the major-domo and secretary and the bailiffs (nedel'shchiki) shall be paid no judicial duel fees. Article 5. And should the parties, having stood in the dueling field, become reconciled, the boyar and secretary are to take their fees in the same proportion; the major-domo, one quarter-ruble and the secretary four altyns and one denga; the bailiff one quarter-ruble and a viashchee fee of two altyns. Article 6. And if they fight a judicial duel over a question of loan or physical violence, the boyar and secretary shall take from the losing party a protiven' fee based on plaintiff's damages, the major-domo, one half-ruble, his secretary one quarter-ruble, and the bailiff one half-ruble plus a viashchee fee of four altyns. Article 7. And if they shall fight in the field about arson, murder, brigandage, or theft, then the sum at issue is to be levied from the loser; the major-domo is to get from the loser one half-ruble and the [loser's] armor; the secretary, one quarter-ruble; the bailiff one half-ruble and a viashchee fee of four altyns; and the loser himself is to be given over to the boyar and secretary for punishment and fine.
Article 8. And if evidence is brought against anyone of theft, brigandage, murder, false accusation, or any other such evil deed, and he is a notorious criminal, then the boyar is to order him executed and the sum at issue paid from his property, and whatever remains of this property shall be taken by the boyar and his secretary for themselves. And the fee and fine are to be divided between the boyar and his secretary: to the boyar two altyns, to his secretary eight dengi. And if a criminal has no such property with which to pay the sum at issue, the boyar shall [nevertheless] not give him up to the plaintiff to make good plaintiff's loss, but shall order the Moscow Grand Prince's deputy and steward to have him executed. Article 9. And the murderer of his master, or a conspirator, temple robber or kidnapper, or podymshchik or arsonist, such a notorious criminal shall not be allowed to live, but shall be put to death.
Article 10. And if a thief be caught stealing in any way for the first time, except [in the case of] temple robbery and kidnapping [or theft accompanied by murder?] and there has been no previous accusation of other theft made against him, then he shall be punished on the market place, flogged with the knout and made to pay plaintiff's damages, and the judge shall sell him? /impose a fine upon him. And if the thief has no property with which to pay the sum at issue, then, after flogging him with the knout, they shall give him over to the plaintiff in slavery to make good plaintiff's loss, and the judge shall take nothing from him. Article 11. And if a thief be caught a second time stealing, then he shall be executed and the sum at issue paid from his property, the remainder of his property going to the judge. And if he has no property sufficient for the satisfaction of the plaintiff's loss, he shall [nevertheless] not be given up to the plaintiff [in slavery] to cover his damages, but shall be put to death. Article 12. And if a person be accused as a thief by five or six reputable petty nobles, after kissing the Grand Prince's cross, or by five reputable common peasant cross-kissers (wardens?), and if there be no evidence against him in a previous case that he had stolen from anyone or had paid damages for theft to anyone, then plaintiff's loss shall be taken from him without court proceedings.
Concerning Stolen Goods
Article 13. If defendant be brought with stolen goods (polichnoe) for the first time, and five or six men swear, after kissing the Grand Prince's cross, that the defendant is a known thief and has stolen more than once before, then he shall be executed and the sum at issue/plaintiff's loss paid from his property.
Concerning Testimony of Thieves
Article 14. And whomever a thief shall accuse, he shall be interrogated; if the accused has in the past been charged with theft, and supporting evidence given, he shall be tortured on accusation of theft; if there has been no previous charge, supported by evidence, of any sort against him, then the thief's accusations shall not be given [full] credence and he (the accused) shall be let out on bail pending further investigation.
Concerning the Written Court Decision (pravaja gramota)
Article 15. For affixing a seal on a court decision the fee shall be nine dengi per ruble, and the secretary, for signing it, shall receive one altyn per ruble, and the scribe who writes up the decision shall receive three dengi per ruble.
Concerning the Record of Trial (dokladnyj spisok)
Article 16. And the boyar shall affix his seal to the trial record, and the secretary shall sign it. And for [each] record the boyar shall take one altyn per ruble; the secretary, for signing it, four dengi per ruble; and the scribe, who writes up the record, two dengi per ruble.
Concerning Court Decisions on Slaves
Article 17. And for a written court decision and for a manumission (otpustnye) of a male or female slave the boyar shall receive, for affixing his seal, nine dengi a head; the secretary, for signing, one altyn a head, and the scribe, who writes up the decision or manumission, three dengi a head.
Concerning the Slave Manumission
Article 18. And if anyone presents a manumission without reporting to the boyar and without the secretary's signature, or, in towns, without reporting to the vicegerent who is a boyar holding full jurisdictional grant, then such manumission is not valid, except when the master (gosudar') with his own hand shall write it, and then said manumission is valid.
Concerning Unjust Court Procedure
Article 19. And whomever a boyar without [proper] trial declares in the wrong, and, with the secretary, issues a written court decision against him, then that decision shall be invalid, and that which was taken [shall be] returned. But the boyar and secretary shall pay no fine, and the parties shall commence proceedings anew.
Concerning the Decree to Vicegerents
Article 20. And city vicegerents and rural vicegerents who hold limited jurisdictional grants shall not release a male or female slave without formal report [to higher authorities], nor issue documents returning runaway slaves to their masters. Likewise they shall not issue to a male or female slave a court decision against the master without reference up, nor issue a manumission to a male or female slave.
Concerning the Grand Prince
Article 21. And for the administration of justice by the Grand Prince and his children the same shall be taken from the guilty party as for the boyar court, [to wit,] two altyns per ruble, to whomever the Grand Prince shall order.
Concerning the Written Court Decision
Article 22. For a written court decision the seal-keeper of the Grand Prince and of the Grand Prince's children shall receive nine dengi per ruble for [affixing his] seal; the secretary shall receive an altyn per ruble for signing; the scribe, who writes up the decision, three dengi per ruble. Article 23. And from a male or female slave the seal-keeper shall take, for a written court decision, nine dengi a head; the secretary shall take, for signing, an altyn a head; the scribe, who writes up the decision, three dengi a head.
Concerning the Record of Trial
Article 24. And the record of trial for reporting up to the Grand Prince and to his children shall be stamped by the seal-keeper of the Grand Prince and by the seal-keeper of his children. For affixing the seal upon such record he shall take nine dengi per ruble; the secretary, for signing, shall take an altyn per ruble; and the scribe, who writes it up, shall receive two dengi per ruble.
Concerning Record(s) of Default Judgments
Article 25. And for [recording] a default judgment the seal-keeper shall receive an altyn per ruble; the secretary, for signing it, also an altyn per ruble; and the scribe shall take two dengi per ruble.
Concerning Court Summons
Article 26. And for summonses the secretary shall take, for his signature, two dengi apiece. And for postponements the secretary shall take, for his signature, three dengi per ruble. And the scribes shall take two dengi per ruble for writing it up. And if the plaintiff [or] defendant both desire a postponement, each shall pay one half the cost of signing and writing it up, plus a riding-distance fee, (xozhenoe), to the bailiff. And if a plaintiff or defendant does not answer a summons, and sends for a postponement, he alone shall bear the costs of both the summons and the postponement, and the service fee. And the ministers shall keep the summonses in their possession.
Concerning Default Judgments
Article 27. And when time comes to issue default judgments, the ministers shall themselves gather together the summonses, and, having themselves sorted them out, they shall order the scribes to issue default judgments and write out postponements. And the scribes [on their own initiative] shall issue no summons. And the default judgments shall be issued the eighth day [after the date set in the summons and the failure of a party to appear in court].
Concerning Bailiff Warrants
Article 28. And for a bailiff's warrant the seal-keeper is to be paid from [and according to] the bailiff's riding-distance fee. When, according to the warrant, the bailiff is paid one ruble, the secretary takes an altyn from the bailiff's ruble for signing, and the seal-keeper also takes an altyn from it for affixing the seal. If the riding-distance fee to any city is more than a ruble, or less, the secretary and the seal-keeper shall take [fees] in the same proportion. And if the sum in dispute is less than the riding-distance fee, the secretary shall not sign such warrant; and without bailiffs the ministers shall likewise not sign warrants. And no matter how many parties there are to a suit (lit., how many portions [into which the total fee is divided] there are in the warrant), the bailiff shall have a single riding-distance fee to that city for which the warrant is drawn. Article 29. And the walking-distance fee for the bailiff shall be ten dengi in Moscow and double this sum for an investigation; they shall take no additional fee for [placing parties on] bond. And the bailiff shall have a riding-distance fee for any other city [besides Moscow], and double this sum for an investigation.
Decree on Riding-distance Fees
Article 30. And the riding-distance fee from Moscow to Kolomna is one half-ruble; to Kashira one half-ruble; to Khotun' ten altyns; to Serpuxov one half-ruble; to Tarusa twenty altyns; to Aleksin twenty-five altyns; to Kaluga one ruble; to Jaroslavec one half-ruble; to Vereja one half-ruble; to Borovsk a half-ruble; to Vyshegorod a half-ruble; to Kremensk twenty altyns; to Mozaisk one half-ruble, and to Medyn' twenty-five altyns; to Vjazma one and one-half rubles; to Zvenigorod one-fifth of a ruble (two grivny); to Vorotynsk forty altyns; to Odoev forty altyns; to Kozel'sk one ruble and a quarter-ruble; to Belev the same; to Mezeck forty altyns; to Obolensk one half-ruble; to Dmitrov ten altyns; to Radonezh one quarter-ruble; to Perejaslavl' twenty altyns; to Rostov one ruble; to Jaroslavl' one ruble and one quarter-ruble; to Vologda two and one-half rubles; to Beloozero two and one-half rubles; to Ustjug five rubles; to Vychegda seven rubles; to Dvina and to Kholmogory eight Moscow rubles; to Vladimir one ruble and one quarter-ruble; to Kostroma one and one-half rubles; to Jurev one ruble; to Suzdal' one ruble and one quarter-ruble; to Galich two and one-half rubles; to Murom one and one-half rubles; to the patrimonial estate of the Starodub princes, one and one-half rubles; to Meshchera two rubles; to Nizhnij-Novgorod two and one-half rubles; to Uglich one ruble; to Bezhickij Verx one and one-half rubles; to Romanov one ruble and one quarter-ruble; to Klin one half-ruble; to Kashin one ruble; to Tver' one ruble; to Zubcev and Opki one ruble; to Khlepnja forty altyns; to Rzheva one ruble and one quarter-ruble; to Velikij Novgorod two and one-half Moscow rubles. Article 31. And the bailiffs themselves shall riding-distance with warrants and put them [defendants] on bond, or shall send their relatives or servants with warrants. No men hired especially for the job shall be sent by them with warrants. And riding with warrants, they are not to take anything for placing a defendant on bond.
Decree concerning bailiffs
And in whatever city a bailiff shall reside, he shall not ride in that city with warrants nor send [anyone else] with warrants to his home city in any matter.
Article 32. And whosoever shall send a bailiff after someone in a matter, whatever loss shall occur to him in this matter through deliberate delay, or whatever he shall spend as a result of a summons and a written court decision and a default judgment, the loser shall pay all [such costs) to the one adjudged right. Article 33. And bailiffs shall not ask for or take bribes for the boyar or major-domo or for the secretary, nor shall they themselves take any bribes for putting on bond. Article 34. And to whomever they shall deliver up a thief and order him interrogated, he (the bailiff) shall interrogate the thief zealously. And whomever a thief shall [in turn] accuse, he (the bailiff) shall tell the Grand Prince or judge who has handed the thief over to him, and shall order the thief not to accuse any person falsely. And if they send a bailiff out after thieves he shall apprehend them in lawful fashion, and he shall not favor anyone. And having taken custody of the thief he shall not release him nor shall he accept bribes, and he shall not apprehend other people. Article 35. And whenever a bailiff has thieves in his charge, he shall not release them on bond without report, nor is he to sell the thieves. Article 36. And if a thief be released on bond in any case whatsoever, they (the bailiffs) shall not put off the plaintiffs and defendants, but shall bring them before the judges. They shall draw up postponements and issue default decrees to peasants (Christians?) without delay and they shall take nothing from peasants (Christians?) for default judgments. And if a postponement be issued for both the parties together, he (the bailiff) shall take one walking-distance fee from both parties and besides this he shall take nothing. And in respect to his riding-distance fee, he is to be given guarantee of payment prior to the enquiry [pertaining to theft] and he is to take his riding-distance fee from the party adjudged guilty. And if a plaintiff or defendant does not appear in response [to a summons] but sends [someone else] in his place for a postponement, the bailiffs shall take their fees from him alone who comes in his place to have the case postponed.
Decree to City Vicegerents about Justice
Article 37. And into whatever city or canton there shall come a bailiff or his agent with warrant, he shall show the warrant to the local city vicegerent or rural vicegerent or their deputies. And if both litigants are of that city or canton, then he shall place them both before the city vicegerent or rural vicegerent or their deputies. Article 38. And those boyars and petty boyars whom are given grants with full jurisdiction shall administer justice, and at their court there must be [present]: a steward (dvorskij), an elder (starosta) and outstanding citizens (lushchie ljudi). And without a steward, elder and outstanding citizens the city and rural vicegerents shall not hold court; and they are to take no bribes for administering justice, nor shall their deputies or agents take bribes for administering justice, either for their lord or for their deputy, and the tax-collectors shall also not ask for bribes in connection with judicial administration. And he (the vicegerent) is to receive [a fee] for the trial if the plaintiff wins; and he (the vicegerent) and his deputy are to receive from the loser a protiven' fee in accordance with the charters, and where there is no charter he shall have them in proportion to the sum at issue. And if plaintiff does not win his case, but is [instead] found guilty, he (the vicegerent) shall collect two altyns per ruble from the plaintiff, and his deputy shall have eight dengi per ruble. And if the case involves more than one ruble, or less than one ruble, then the fee shall be collected from the plaintiff in the same proportion. And the criminal-investigator (dovodchik) shall take his walking-distance fee and riding-distance fee and investigation expenses according to the charter. And if the case proceeds to the point of a judicial duel and the parties become reconciled [prior to the duel], he (the judge) shall have his fees according to the charter. And if they fight it out on the field, [the vicegerent] shall have his vina fee and protiven' fee according to the charter. And where there is no charter, and they become reconciled, he (the vicegerent) and his deputy shall be given a protiven'-fee of half the sum sought by the plaintiff. And if the parties fight it out on the [dueling] field in a case involving a loan or assault and battery, he shall have a fee equal to the sum sought by plaintiff. And if they fight it out on the [dueling] field in a case of arson, murder, brigandage or theft, then he shall exact the sum at issue from the defeated party, and the defeated party himself shall be subject to punishment and fine at the hands of the vicegerent and his deputy.
Decree Concerning Thieves
Article 39. And if evidence be brought against a person of theft or brigandage or murder or defamation (false accusation), or any other such evil deed, and he is a known criminal, then he (the vicegerent or judge) shall order him put to death, and shall exact the sum at issue from his estate, and what is left over of his property the vicegerent and his deputy shall take for themselves. And if the known criminal has no property with which to pay the sum at issue, then [nevertheless] he (the vicegerent) shall not hand him over to plaintiff to make up plaintiff's loss, [but] shall order him put to death.
Concerning Written Court Decisions
Article 40. And for a written court decision the boyar or petty boyar who holds a full-jurisdictional grant shall receive, together with his deputy, two and one-half altyns per ruble for affixing the seal; the secretary, who writes the court decision, shall take three dengi per ruble for writing. And if the deputy issues a written court decision he shall receive, for affixing a seal to it, two and one-half altyns per ruble for his lord and himself, and his secretary shall be paid three dengi per ruble for each copy]. And the boyar and petty boyar with a full-jurisdictional grant shall receive for a written court decision or manumission for a male or female slave, two and one-half altyns a head, from the male or female slave, for affixing the seal. And his secretary shall have three dengi a head for writing it up. Article 41. And his deputy in local administration (na kormlenie) shall not issue a slave a written court decision without reporting to his master, nor shall he issue a manumission.
Concerning the Slave's Manumission
Article 42. And if anyone presents a manumission without report to the boyar and without the secretary's signature, or from the cities without report to the vicegerent who has the status of a petty boyar with full-jurisdictional grant, then such manumission shall be invalid unless the (slave's) master shall have written it with his own hand, [in which case] the manumission is valid. Article 43. City and rural vicegerents who hold limited-jurisdictional grants, and deputies of the Grand Prince and of boyars who hold full-jurisdictional grants, shall not release a male or female slave without report [to the Grand Prince or higher boyar] and shall not issue a manumission; and they are not to release a thief or murderer, nor sell, punish or release any other felon without report [to the higher authorities].
Article 44. And a vicegerent's bailiffs shall, according to the charter, receive walking-distance fees and riding-distance fees. And where no charter exists, such bailiff shall take walking-distance fees of four dengi, and one denga per verst riding-distance fees [outside the city], and twice this sum for investigative duties in the city and rural canton. Article 45. And if one sends a bailiff after a city vicegerent, a rural vicegerent, or a boyar, or petty boyar, or their deputies, or the deputies of the Grand Prince, then the city vicegerent and the rural vicegerent and their deputies and the Grand Prince's deputies and criminal-investigators shall answer [the warrant or summons] and appear [at the designated time]; and if [the summoned person] does not himself appear at the designated time he shall send [someone to appear] in his place at the designated time.
Article 46. And if a person buys something new, except a horse, not knowing the vendor, and if [the transaction] be known to two or three good men (dobrye ljudi, who represent the community in court), and if [subsequently those objects] are seized from him [as stolen goods], those good men shall testify in accordance with the law that defendant bought the goods at the market in their presence, then the person in whose possession [those objects] were seized is without fault and need not kiss [the cross]. Article 47. And if a person purchases [something] on foreign soil and those objects are seized [as stolen goods], and if he has as witness two or three good men who shall testify according to law that he purchased the goods in their presence at a market, then the person in whose possession [those objects] were seized is without fault and need not kiss [the cross]; and if he has no witnesses he must be made to give oath.
Concerning Witnesses' Testimony
Article 48. And when a witness shall give testimony in a case of assault or robbery or loans, then the trial procedure shall be left to the choice of the defendant; if he wishes, he may go to the [dueling] field with the witness, or, having stood on the field, he may place that for which he is being sued at the cross; [in the latter case] the plaintiff shall take what he claims as his, without kissing the cross, and the defendant shall pay the duel fees but not the loser fees.
And if he does not go out on the [dueling] field but places [the sum or property demanded by plaintiff] at the cross, he shall pay the judges a fee according to the list, but shall pay no duel fees.
Article 49. And if the defendant be too old [himself to fight] against a witness, or too small, or a cripple, or a priest or a monk or a nun, or a woman, then [he or she] shall be allowed to hire a fighter against the witness, but the witness may not hire such a fighter. And whatever losses accrue to the party who wins the case, or to his witness, such losses [shall be charged] against the loser. Article 50. And if a witness fails to appear before the judge, whether or not he has any testimony to give, then from such witness shall the sum at issue and all dues be taken. And concerning time of appearance, this witness shall deal with the sergeant-at-arms. Article 51. And if a witness refuses to testify before the judge in [support of] the plaintiff's allegations, then the plaintiff is at fault. Article 52. And if a woman, or small child, or an old person, or a sick person, or cripple, or priest, or monk, or nun shall bring suit against anyone or if any of these shall serve as a witness for anyone, then he is allowed to hire a substitute [for dueling]. And the litigants or witness must kiss [the cross] but the hired fighters must fight. Against these hired fighters the plaintiff or defendant [may hire] fighters [of his own, or], if he so desires, he may himself fight in the [dueling] field. Article 53. If any person shall have another seized by a bailiff in connection with a fight or verbal insult, or a loan, and they shall not desire to go to court, and if, reporting to the judge, they become reconciled, then the judge shall take no fees from them except the [bailiff's] riding-distance or walking-distance fees. Article 54. And if a hired worker does not serve out his period and goes away, he shall be deprived of his wages.
Article 55. And whatever merchant, departing on a business trip, shall take money or goods from another [for purposes of commerce], and on the way these goods shall, through no fault of his, be lost, for instance, shall be sunk, or burned, or seized by troops, the boyar [judge], after investigating the matter, shall order the Grand Prince's secretary to issue him a document entitling him to pay back the debt by installment, [which document shall bear) the seal of the Grand Prince, and [which document shall allow defendant] to pay plaintiff the principal without interest. But if [a merchant] shall take something to trade and then go and drink it up or through some other foolishness lose it in non-accidental fashion, such person shall be handed over to the plaintiff in slavery to make up the loss. Article 56. And if a slave be captured by Tatar enemy troops and escapes from captivity, he shall be free and no longer the slave of his former master.
Concerning the Peasant Quitting-Time
Article 57. And peasants may leave a canton [to go to another canton], or [go] from village to village, once a year, for a week before and a week after St. George's Day in the autumn. For field living-quarters they shall pay one ruble, for forest quarters a half-ruble. And whatsoever peasant shall live one year under a given master and then leave, he shall pay one-fourth of the living-quarters' value, or if he lives two years and leaves, he shall pay one-half; if he lives three years and leaves, he shall pay three-fourths of the living-quarters' value, and if he lives four years he shall pay the full amount of living-quarters' value.
Article 58. And whatsoever foreigner shall bring suit against another foreigner, the defendant is free to take an oath [with cross kissing] that he is innocent, or he can lay at the cross that for which he is being sued, and plaintiff, after kissing the cross, shall take it. Article 59. And a priest, and a deacon, and a monk, and a nun, and a sexton, and a widow, who are sustained by God's church, are to be judged by a bishop or his judge. And if a layman [is in litigation] with a church man, then a joint court shall decide the case. And if a widow is not supported by the church, but lives in her own home, then she shall not be under ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Article 60. And if a person dies without a will and has no son, then all his personal property and lands [shall pass] to the daughter; and if he has no daughter, then his closest of kin shall inherit.
Article 61. And between villages and hamlets fences are to be erected by halves (i.e., each side putting up half the fencing), and through whose fence there shall occur damage by cattle, he whose fence it is shall pay the damages. And when meadowlands are far from villages or hamlets, then the owner of such lands shall not erect a fence, but he whose lands are ploughed fields next to the meadow shall erect the entire enclosure.
Article 62. And whoever shall plough up a boundary or cut down markers, be he from the lands of the Grand Prince [and trespass on those of] a boyar or a monastery, or from boyar and monastery holdings [and trespass] on the lands of the Grand Prince, or from boyar and monastery lands [and trespass] on [lands of another] boyar, or from boyar lands [and trespass] on monastery land, whosoever has ploughed up a boundary or cut down markers shall be flogged with the knout and the plaintiff shall take a ruble [fine) from him. And if peasants among themselves in a canton or village shall plough across or mow beyond a boundary, then the rural vicegerents or the estate manager shall take from him (the guilty one) two altyns in place of a ram and for bodily injury they will fine according to the person, the injury and the circumstances.
Concerning Land Litigation
Article 63. And if a boyar shall start proceedings against [another] boyar, or a monastery shall sue a monastery, or a boyar sue a monastery, or a monastery a boyar, then the case must be tried (trial must begin?) within three years and after three years action will not lie. And if a free peasant brings suit against another free peasant, or a pomeshchik (holder of land on service tenure) sues another pomeshchik who holds lands belonging to the Grand Prince, or if a free peasant or landlord's peasant sues a pomeshchik, or if a pomeshchik sues a free peasant or landlord's peasant, then the suit shall be brought within three years, and after three years action will not lie. And if a boyar or monastery are sued for lands belonging to the Grand Prince, then the case must be tried within six years, not more. And when lands are held by a bailiff pending litigation, the court shall complete the case. Article 64. And judges reviewing a case shall have a review fee of two grivny from the party found guilty, and there shall be no review fee [for cases involving] less than one ruble. And for court records [sent up for review], and for cases dealing with land or slaves, there shall be no review fee. A review fee (an amount equal to a review fee?) shall be collected for all cases in which a judicial duel has occurred. And if a party shall declare the court record false and demands an investigation, then there shall be a review fee. And the bailiffs (podvojskim) shall receive an investigation-fee of four dengi, and it shall be collected from the loser. Article 65. And whenever there are two city vicegerents in a city or two rural vicegerents in a canton, they shall have fees in accordance with this document, both [jointly receiving the fee] for a single vicegerent, and their deputies the fees of a single deputy, and they shall share the fees equally.
Concerning the Full-Slavery Document
Article 66. By a full-slavery document [one becomes] a slave. By taking the position of a deputy or village steward, one becomes a slave whether with formal report [to higher authorities] or without it, along with one's wife and one's children, provided they live under the same master; and those children who shall have begun living under another master, or by themselves, shall not become slaves; and by being a city steward [one does not become] a slave. Whoever marries a female slave becomes himself a slave; a woman marrying a slave becomes herself a slave. Slaves may pass by dowry and by will.
Concerning Bribes and Testimony of Witnesses
Article 67. And it shall be ordered proclaimed in the markets in Moscow and all cities of the Moscow and Novgorod territories, and decreed in all cantons that the plaintiff and defendant shall not offer bribes to judges and bailiffs and that witnesses shall not testify to what they have not seen, and shall tell only the truth concerning what they have seen. And if a witness falsely testifies concerning something he has not seen, and this is later discovered, then this witness shall pay the sum at issue and damages.
Fees for Judicial Duels
Article 68. And to the dueling field there shall ride a major-domo and a secretary, and the major-domo and secretary shall enquire of the litigants, plaintiff and defendant, who [of the people present] are their backers and sureties; and whoever are designated as backers and sureties shall be ordered to stand [on the sidelines], and backers and sureties shall have no armor, oak clubs or sticks in their possession. And if any outsider stand at the field, the majordomo and his secretary shall send them away. And if such outsiders do not go away, the major-domo and secretary shall order the sum at issue and fees paid by them and order them placed on bond, seized and brought before the Grand Prince.
Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837
© 1996 Robert Beard