Linguistics 110 Linguistic Analysis: Sentences & Dialects
Lecture Number Twenty Six
Computational Syntax and Semantics


  1. Syntax (Augmented Transition Networks)

    How do human beings process sentences so rapidly?

    1. Finite State Devices

      The old man likes John
      art: the adj: old noun: man verb: likes noun: John
      DEF OLD MAN LIKES PN: ID

    2. Problems for Finite State Devices .

      1. Recursivity
        the old man who reads books that are popular likes John
        Solution: Separate N, V, A, det, aux, p processors
      2. Movement: It's John the old man likes? Does the old man like John?
        Solution: separate phrase types
      3. Ambiguity: The horse ran past the barn fell (garden-path sentences)
      4. Lexical encoding

        Taft & Zhu 1995

        1. polysemy: dope,
        2. synonymy: sofa : couch, bag : sack, bucket : pail
        3. homophony: pear, pare, pair
        4. polycategoriality: fire, hammer, rose, cooler

        Schreuder and Baayen 1995
        Figure 2. Access representations (layer A); concept nodes (layer B); semantic and syntactic nodes (layer C); and their connections for the Dutch noun boek 'book,' the adjective ruim 'spacious,' and related inflected and derived complex forms.


  2. Semantics (Spreading Activation Networks)

    1. Schemas / Scripts
      1. a set of expectations
        1. The waiter . . . .
        2. The fire hydrant . . . .
        3. The family cat . . . .

      2. Spreading Activation Network

        RESTAURANT script
        maitre d'hotel
        show to table
        give menu
        expect tip
        table
        chair
        legs
        back
        spine
        upright
        lean back
        table cloth
        flowers
        salt & pepper
        sugar
        waiter
        take order
        a la carte
        complete dinner
        luncheon menu
        breakfast menu
        ask about water
        bring order
        tip
        15%
        leave on table
        complain to

    2. Ambiguity (Why do we make the processing errors we do and not those we don't? )
      1. The firm drives . . . .
      2. The British left waffles [on the Falkland Islands]
      3. Garden path sentencesThe horse walked past the barn fell.

     

  3. Conclusions??

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