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SPECIES Myodes glareolus

Author:Schreber, 1780.
Citation:Die Säugethiere, 4: 680.
Common Name:Bank Vole
Type Locality:Denmark, Lolland Isl.
Distribution:W Palaearctic forests from France and Scandinavia to Lake Baikal, south to N Spain, N Italy (isolated montane populations farther south), the Balkans (but not most of Greece), W and N Turkey, N Kazakhstan and the Altai and Sayan Mtns; also occurs on Britain and SW Ireland.
Status:IUCN – Lower Risk (lc).

European populations reviewed by Viro and Niethammer (1982) and Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999), those in Russia and adjacent regions by Gromov and Erbajeva (1995). Regional reports covering range, taxonomy, and ecology are available for: N Turkey (Pamukoglu and Albayrak, 1996), Greece (Thrace; Vohralík and Sofianidou, 1992a), Serbia and Montenegro (Kryštufek and Vohralík, 1992; Petrov, 1992), Slovenia (Kryštufek, 1991), NE Spain (Torre et al., 1996) and Navarra region of N Spain (Castien and Gosalbez, 1992), Netherlands (Bergers and Bussink, 1995; Mostert, 1992a), E Baltic region (Miljutin, 1997, 1998; Timm et al., 1998), Italia (Amori et al., 1999; Cantini, 1991; Cerone and Aloise, 1994; Cresti et al., 1994; Locatelli and Paolucci, 1996a), Slovakia (Danko, 1994; Kminiak, 1996; Mošanský, 1994; Stanko, 1995; Stanko and Mošanský, 1994, 2000; Stanko et al., 1994, 2000), Czech Republic (Šmaha, 1996), N Germany (Dolch et al., 1994), Sumava Mtns of SW Bohemia (Andĕra and Červený, 1994), and Switzerland (Hausser, 1995; Maurizio, 1994).

Morphologically and biochemically, M. glareolus is closely allied with M. centralis (Mezhzherin and Serbenyuk, 1992). Evolutionary relationships among British samples reported by Steven (1953), biochemical differentiation among populations over short geographic distances presented by Leitner and Hartl (1988). Univariate and multivariate distillations of metric and non-metric traits of Austrian samples, as integrated with allozymic and mitochondrial DNA analyses, point to distinctive eastern and western moieties: "the Eastern Alps were colonized in postglacial times by two different phylogenetic lineages (nageri from the west, glareolus or istericus from the east) that probably had split during the Würm glaciation" (Spitzenberger et al., 1999:69). Y-chromosome polymorphisms encountered at the same localities in Serbia and Montenegro thought to indicate postglacial secondary contact (Vujošević and Blagojević, 1997). Normal synaptic association between gonosomes in M. glareolus documented by Ashley and Fredga (1994) in a phylogenetic context. M3 variation among extant and fossil samples analyzed and interpreted by Bauchau and Chaline (1987). Based on huge samples from the Czech Republic, Zejda et al. (1994) concluded that modal differences in m1 and M3 patterns mirrored genetic divergence among populations where samples are large and age groups are considered. In a homogeneous population, Plakchotnikova et al. (1992) uncovered no significant differences in molar dimensions between right and left sides or between males and females. Istomin (1994a, b) tabulated the infrequent occurrence of polydonty and interpreted variation in other cranial traits across fragmented habitats within the S Taiga, NW Russia. Literák and Zejda (1995) described color mutations in wild populations in the Czech Republic. Bank voles represent a recent introduction to Ireland, not recorded until 1964; Smiddy and Sleeman (1994) surveyed their range and rate of expansion in County Cork, SW Ireland, presumably from a small founder population as indicated by mitochrondrial DNA analyses (Ryan et al., 1996).

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    alstoni (Barrett-Hamilton and Hinton, 1913)
    arvalis (Geoffroy, 1803)
    bernisi (Rey, 1972)
    bicolor (Fatio, 1862)
    bosniensis (Martino, 1945)
    britannicus (Miller, 1900)
    caesarius (Miller, 1908)
    cantueli (Saint Girons, 1969)
    curcio (Lehman, 1961)
    devius (Stroganov, 1948)
    erica (Barret-Hamilton, 1913)
    fulvus (Millet, 1828)
    garganicus (Hagen, 1958)
    gorka (Montagu, 1923)
    hallucalis (Thomas, 1906)
    harrisoni (Hinton, 1926)
    helveticus (Miller, 1900)
    hercynicus (Mehlis, 1831)
    insulaebellae (Heim de Balsac, 1940)
    intermedius (Burg, 1923)
    istericus (Miller, 1909)
    italicus (Dal Piaz, 1924)
    jurassicus (Burg, 1923)
    kennardi (Hinton, 1926)
    makedonicus (Felten and Storch, 1965)
    minor (Kerr, 1792)
    nageri (Schinz, 1845)
    norvegicus (Miller, 1900)
    ognevi (Serebrennikov, 1927)
    petrovi (Martino, 1945)
    pirenaica (Cabrera, 1924)
    pirinus (Wolf, 1940)
    ponticus (Thomas, 1906)
    pratensis (Baillon, 1834)
    pratensis (Bell, 1837)
    reinwaldti (Hinton, 1921)
    riparia (Yarrell, 1832)
    rubidus (Baillon, 1834)
    rufescens (de Sélys Longchamps, 1836)
    ruttneri (Wettstein, 1926)
    saianicus (Thomas, 1911)
    sibiricus (Egorin, 1936)
    skomerensis (Barrett-Hamilton, 1903)
    sobrus (Montagu, 1923)
    suecicus (Miller, 1900)
    tomensis (Heptner, 1948)
    variscicus (Wettstein, 1954)
    vasconiae (Miller, 1900)
    vesanus (Hinton, 1926)
    wasjuganensis (Egorin, 1939)

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