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SPECIES Phoca vitulina

Author:Linnaeus, 1758.
Citation:Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1: 38.
Common Name:Harbor Seal
Type Locality:"in mari Europćo" restricted by Thomas (1911a) to "Mari Bothnico et Baltico", however, presently it does not occur in the Gulf of Bothnia (Bobrinski et al., 1944).
Distribution:Coastal regions of Canada, China (south to Kiangsu), Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Japan (Hokkaido), Mexico (Baja California, Isla Guadalupe-vagrant), Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia (Kurile Isls and Kamchatka), Sweden, USA (Atlantic coast: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, vagrants: New York, Florida, Vermont. Pacific Coast: Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California).
Status:IUCN – Data Deficient as P. v. mellonae, otherwise Lower Risk (lc).
Comments:The position of stegjnegeri remains uncertain; Scheffer (1958) placed it in largha; King (1983) placed it in vitulina; and Shaughnessy and Fay (1977) suggested incertae sedis. Reviewed by Shaughnessy and Fay (1977), Burns et al. (1984), and Smith et al. (1994). Synonyms allocated according to Ellerman and Morrison-Scott (1951) and Rice (1998).
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Offspring:

SUBSPECIES vitulina

SUBSPECIES concolor

SUBSPECIES mellonae

SUBSPECIES richardii

SUBSPECIES stejnegeri

Synonyms:


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