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GENUS Phoca

Author:Linnaeus, 1758.
Citation:Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1: 37.
Type Species:Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758, by tautonomy.
Comments:Burns and Fay (1970), Rice (1977), McDermid and Bonner (1975), Gromov and Baranova (1981), King (1983), and Wyss (1988) considered Phoca, Pusa, Histriophoca, and Pagophilus a monophyletic group. Cladistic analysis based on morphology and mtDNA reveal two clades, Pagophilus+Histriophoca and Phoca+Pusa+Halichoerus (Carr and Perry, 1998; Mouchaty et al., 1995; Muizon, 1982b; Perry et al., 1995; Rice, 1998). This was also supported by Bininda-Emonds et al.ís (1999) "complete data" phylogeny. Burns and Fay (1970) and McDermid and Bonner (1975) argued that these differences should be recognized only at the subgeneric level.
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Offspring:

SPECIES largha

SPECIES vitulina

SUBSPECIES vitulina

SUBSPECIES concolor

SUBSPECIES mellonae

SUBSPECIES richardii

SUBSPECIES stejnegeri

Synonyms:

    Ambysus Rafinesque, 1815
    Arctias Rafinesque, 1815
    Calocephalus F. G. Cuvier, 1826
    Caspiopusa Dybowski, 1929

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