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SPECIES Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus

Author:de Selys-Longchamps, 1836.
Citation:Essai Monogr. sur les Campagnols des Env. de Liege.: 10.
Common Name:Common Pine Vole
Type Locality:Belgium, Liege, Waremme.
Distribution:Atlantic coasts of N and C France through S Netherlands (Ligtvoet and Straetmans, 1992), across C Europe (SW Bohemia [Andĕra and Červený, 1994]; Switzerland [Maurizio, 1994; Hausser, 1995]; Slovakia [Danko, 1994; Kminiak, 1996; Mošanský, 1994; Stanko, 1995; Stanko and Mošanský, 1994, 2000; Stanko et al., 2000]; Czech Republic [Šmaha, 1996]; Italy [Amori et al., 1999; Locatelli and Paolucci, 1996a]) to Ukraine and the Don River (Gromov and Erbajeva, 1995), south through Romania and Balkan region into N and SE Greece, and Turkey (mountains in N, W and S but not on Anatolian Plateau; Kryštufek and Vohralík, 2001) eastward to south of Trabzon (Macholán et al., 2001a); isolated populations in Russia (near St Petersburg; Zagorodnyuk, 1989) and Estonia (Miljutin, 1997, 1998; Timm et al., 1998). Absent from Mediterranean coast and islands.
Status:IUCN – Lower Risk (lc).

Subgenus Terricola, subterraneus species group (Chaline et al., 1988; Zagorodnyuk, 1990). Reviewed by Niethammer (1982g). Karyotypic information available in Sablina et al. (1989), Zima (1986), Zima and Kral (1984a), and Zima et al. (1997a); biochemical comparisons among M. subterraneus, M. felteni, and other voles implemented by Gill et al. (1987). Synonyms follow Zagorodnyuk (1989), who speculated that the Romanian dacius is a separate species, but Brunet-Lecomte et al. (2001) regarded the minor cytogenetic differences as inconclusive. The taxon grafi was described as a species from late Pleistocene fossils from Bulgaria (Brunet-Lecomte et al., 1992) but is now regarded as a chronological subspecies of M. subterraneus (Brunet-Lecomte et al., 2001). Present in the British Isles during early Pleistocene interglacials (Yalden, 1999).

Regional studies have addressed the discrimination of M. subterraneus. Pelage and vibrissal contrasts with M. tatricus documented by Kratochvíl (1969). Distribution and morphological variation reported by Zagorodnyuk (1989, 1992a) in taxonomic overview of species in subgenus Terricola; he clarified distribution of the 2n = 52 and 2n = 54 chromosomal morphs in the Baltic region and morphometrically contrasted M. subterraneus with M. agrestis, M. arvalis, M. levis (formerly rossiaemeridionalis), and M. oeconomus (Zagorodnyuk and Mezhzherin, 1992). Morphometric analysis of m1s vindicated specific separation of M. subterraneus from M. multiplex and M. liechtensteini (Brunet-Lecomte and Kryštufek, 1993), a result also indicated by sequence analysis of the mitochondrial control region (Haring et al., 2000). Morphometric distinction between M. subterraneus and M. liechtensteini and their distributions in Slovenia discussed by Kryštufek (1991). Vohralík and Sofianidou (1992a) identified M. subterraneus from SE Greece (Thrace region) but expressed skepticism about the reliability of size distinctions used to segregate it from M. majori. Macholán et al. (2001a) utilized karyotypic and allozymic analyses to document the distributions of the 2n = 52 and 2n = 54 karyomorphs of M. subterraneus and their chromosomal and genetic distinctions from M. majori (2n = 54); low genetic distance between the two suggests a recent divergence, only 170-350 thousand years ago. Their ranges closely approach one another in NE Turkey but sympatry not yet demonstrated (Macholán et al., 2001a).

The substantial genetic and morphological variation of M. subterraneus throughout its range, especially the Balkans (Kryštufek et al., 1994), prompted Macholán et al. (2001a:40) to propose this view: "taking into account close karyotypic and allozymic relationships (and the fact that some intraspecific genetic distances within M. subterraneus are higher than those between M. subterraneus and M. majori), we cannot rule out a hypothesis that M. subterraneus is paraphyletic, with M. majori (and, by the same token, M. daghestanicus) being one of its constituents." Further research should explore their reservations.




    atratus (Stein, 1931)
    brauneri Martino, 1926
    capucinus (Miller, 1908)
    dacius (Miller, 1908)
    dinaricus Kretzoi, 1959
    ehiki (Wettstein, 1927)
    fingeri (Neuhäuser, 1936)
    fusca (Fatio, 1900)
    grafi Brunet-Lecomte, Nadarowski, and Chaline, 1992
    hercegovinensis (Martino, 1940)
    hungaricus (Ehik, 1926)
    incertoides (Wettstein, 1927)
    incertus (Sélys-Longchamps, 1841)
    klozeli (Ehik, 1942)
    kupelwieseri (Wettstein, 1925)
    martinoi (Ehik, 1935)
    matrensis (Ehik, 1930)
    mustersi (Martino, 1937)
    neglectus Petrov, 1992
    neuhauseri (Martino and Paspalev, 1955)
    nyirensis (Ehik, 1930)
    rufescente-fuscus (Schinz, 1845)
    rufofuscus (Schinz, 1845)
    subterraneoides Petrov, 1992
    transsylvanicus (Ehik, 1924)
    transvolgensis (Schaposchnikov and Schanev, 1958)
    ukrainicus (Vinogradov, 1922)
    wettsteini (Ehik, 1926)
    zimmermanni (Matschie, 1924)

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