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SPECIES Microtus (Mynomes) pennsylvanicus

Author:Ord, 1815.
Citation:In Guthrie, New Geogr., Hist., Comml., Grammar, Philadelphia, 2nd ed., 2: 292.
Common Name:Meadow Vole
Type Locality:USA, Pennsylvania, "meadows below Philadelphia."
Distribution:Meadowlands interspersed across boreal and mixed coniferous-deciduous biomes of North America: C Alaska to Labrador, including Newfoundland and Prince Edward Isl, Canada; south in Rocky Mountains to N New Mexico, in Great Plains to N Kansas (see Frey and Moore, 1990), and in Appalachians and along eastern seaboard to N Georgia and South Carolina, USA; outlier populations in W New Mexico and peninsular Florida, USA, and in N Chihuahua, México.
Status:U.S. ESA—Endangered as M. p. dukecampbelli; IUCN – Vulnerable as M. p. dukecampbelli, Lower Risk (nt) as M. p. admiraltiae, M. p. kincaidi, M. p. provectus, and M. p. shattucki, not evaluated as M. p. chihuahuensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc).
Comments:Subgenus Mynomes, pennsylvanicus species group (Zagorodnyuk, 1990). Proposed as conspecific with Old World M. agrestis by Klimkiewicz (1970), but G-banded chromosomal differences support their recognition as distinct species (Modi, 1987; Vorontsov and Lyapunova, 1986). Aside from the probable insular derivative M. breweri (see that account), pennsylvanicus is closely related to M. montanus and M. townsendii among New World species (see Conroy and Cook, 2000a; Hooper and Hart, 1962; Modi, 1987; Moore and Janecek, 1990). Insular form provectus relegated to subspecific status by Chamberlain (1954) and Moyer et al. (1988), and nesophilus by Jones et al. (1986). Regional studies of variation undertaken (e.g., Anderson, 1956; Anderson and Hubbard, 1971; Weddle and Choate, 1983), but comprehensive review of entire species warranted. Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetational and climatic changes discussed by Woods et al. (1982) apropos isolation of the Florida population (dukecambelli) and other arvicoline austral relicts. Intricate study of M3 variation in fossil and extant samples conducted by Barnosky (1993), who attempted to infer microevolutionary processes from broad stratigraphic and geographic patterns. See Reich (1981, Mammalian Species, 159).



    acadicus Bangs, 1897
    admiraltiae Heller, 1909
    alborufescens (Emmons, 1840)
    alcorni Baker, 1951
    aphorodemus Preble, 1902
    arcticus Cowan, 1951
    aztecus (J. A. Allen, 1893)
    chihuahuensis Bradley and Cockrum, 1968
    copelandi Youngman, 1967
    dekayi (Audubon and Bachman, 1854)
    drummondii (Audubon and Bachman, 1853)
    stonei J. A. Allen, 1899
    dukecampbelli Woods, Post, and Kilpatrick, 1982
    enixus Bangs, 1896
    finitus S. Anderson, 1956
    fontigenus Bangs, 1896
    fulva (Audubon and Bachman, 1841)
    funebris Dale, 1940
    hirsutus (Emmons, 1840)
    inspectus (J. A. Allen, 1899)
    insperatus (J. A. Allen, 1894)
    insularis Bailey, 1898
    kincaidi Dalquest, 1941
    labradorius Bailey, 1898
    longipilis (Baird, 1857)
    magdalenensis Youngman, 1967
    microcephalus (Rhoads, 1894)
    modestus (Baird, 1857)
    nasuta (Audubon and Bachman, 1841)
    nesophilus Bailey, 1898
    nigrans Rhoads, 1897
    noveboracensis (Rafinesque, 1820)
    oneida (DeKay, 1842)
    palustris (Harlan, 1825)
    pratensis (Rafinesque, 1817)
    provectus Bangs, 1908
    pullatus S. Anderson, 1956
    riparius (Ord, 1825)
    rubidus Dale, 1940
    rufescens (DeKay, 1842)
    rufidorsum (Baird, 1857)
    shattucki Howe, 1901
    tananaensis Baker, 1951
    terraenovae (Bangs, 1894)
    uligocola S. Anderson, 1956
    wahema Bailey, 1920

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