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SPECIES Peromyscus leucopus

Author:Rafinesque, 1818.
Citation:Am. Mon. Mag., 3: 446.
Common Name:White-footed Deermouse
Type Locality:USA, Kentucky, Ballard Co., near mouth of Ohio River (as restricted by Osgood, 1909:115-116).
Distribution:S Alberta and to S Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, Canada; throughout much of C and E USA, excluding Florida; southwards to N Durango and along Caribbean coast to Isthmus of Tehuantepec and NW Yucatán Peninsula, México.
Status:IUCN – Data Deficient as P. l. ammodytes, otherwise Lower Risk (lc).

P. leucopus species group. Revised by Osgood (1909). Morphometric discrimination of P. leucopus from P. maniculatus studied in central US and New England (J. Choate, 1973; J. Choate et al., 1979); Rich et al. (1996) combined salivary amylase genotypes with discriminant function analyses to confidently separate these morphologically similar species (also see account of P. gossypinus). Distinctive eastern (leucopus) and southwestern (texanus) cytotypes reported (Baker et al., 1983), with introgression across hybrid zone in central Oklahoma intensively studied (Nelson et al., 1987; Schmidt, 1999; Simmons et al., 1992; Stangl, 1986; Stangl and Baker, 1984a; Van Den Bussche et al., 1993b); possible mechanisms of heterochromatic chromosomal change that would produce the different cytotypes examined by Bowers et al. (1998).

Morphometric variation examined over microgeographic scale in various regions that provide insight to understanding macrogeographic patterns of size, including NC Kansas (Tolliver et al., 1987), SW Tennessee (Elrod and Kennedy, 1995), and Texas (Owen, 1989). Size and chromatic variation of series in the Llano Estacado, N Texas, and its relationship to recognized subspecies, texanus and tornillo, discussed by L. Choate (1997). See Long and Long (1993) and Kilpatrick et al. (1994) for local range expansions within Wisconsin and Maine, respectively. Genetic variation investigated at different spatial scales and habitats (Browne, 1977; Schnake-Greene et al., 1990); variation in microsatellite DNA repeats as potential markers to determine mating systems, gene flow, and demic relationships elucidated by Schmidt (1999). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) regarded noveboracensis and the nominate subspecies as broadly intergrading and synonymized the two. See Lackey et al. (1985, Mammalian Species, 247).

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    affinis (J. A. Allen, 1891)
    ammodytes Bangs, 1905
    arboreus Gloger, 1841
    aridulus Osgood, 1909
    arizonae (J. A. Allen, 1894)
    brevicaudus Davis, 1939
    campestris (Le Conte, 1853)
    canus Mearns, 1896
    castaneus Osgood, 1904
    caudatus Smith, 1939
    cozulmelae Merriam, 1901
    easti Paradiso, 1960
    emmonsi (DeKay, 1840)
    flaccidus J. A. Allen, 1903
    fuscus Bangs, 1905
    incensus Goldman, 1942
    lachiguiriensis Goodwin, 1956
    mearnsii (J. A. Allen, 1891)
    mesomelas Osgood, 1904
    michiganensis (Audubon and Bachman, 1842)
    minnesotae Mearns, 1901
    musculoides Merriam, 1898
    myoides (Gapper, 1830)
    noveboracensis (Fischer, 1829)
    ochraceus Osgood, 1909
    texanus (Woodhouse, 1853)
    tornillo Mearns, 1896

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