Karl Shapiro

I. Primary Sources — Poetry
"Poetry gives us knowledge of its own kind, a unique, unrepeatable, intelligible form. Poetic knowledge is neither intuitive, nor provable, nor ordered, nor consistent, but self-contradictory, beyond demonstration, beyond proof."
(Beyond Criticism)
Poems. Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1935.
The Place of Love. Malvern, Australia: The Bradley Printers, 1942.
Person, Place and Thing. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1942. London: Secker & Warburg, 1944.
V-Letter and Other Poems. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1944.
Essay on Rime. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1945. London: Secker & Warburg, 1947.
Trial of a Poet and Other Poems. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1947.
Poems 1940 - 1953. New York: Random House, 1953.
Poems of a Jew. New York: Random House, 1958.
The Bourgeois Poet. New York: Random House, 1964.
Selected Poems. New York: Random House, 1968.
White-Haired Lover. New York: Random House, 1968.
Adult Bookstore. New York: Random House, 1976.
Collected Poems. New York: Random House, 1978.
Love and War, Art and God: The Poems of Karl Shapiro. Winston-Salem: Stuart Wright, 1984
Adam and Eve, edited by John Wheatcroft. Lewisburg, PA: Press of the Appletree Alley, 1986
New and Selected Poems 1940 - 1986. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987
The Old Horsefly. Orono, Maine: Northern Lights, 1992.
The Wild Card. Urbana and Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1998.

II. Primary Sources — Fiction and Autobiography
"My anti-cultural-committee activities span many years, and I have tried to sabotage organized culture whenever possible — not always successfully, of course."
("The Death of Randall Jarrell" in To Abolish Children and Other Essays)
Edsel. New York: Bernards Geis, 1971.
The Younger Son. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 1988.
Reports of My Death. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 1990

III. Primary Sources — Criticism and Aesthetics
"For many years I have been trying to loosen the hold of the academic or "colonial" mind over poetry. It encourages a poetry as well as an entire literature of reference, the kind that refers back in every case to prior commitments, historical, religious, or philosophical."
("The Decolonization of American Literature" in To Abolish Children and Other Essays)
English Prosody and Modern Poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1947.
A Bibliography of Modern Prosody. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1948.
Beyond Criticism. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1953. Reprinted as
A Primer for Poets. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965.
In Defense of Ignorance. New York: Random House, 1960.
Start with the Sun: Studies in Cosmic Poetry with James E. Miller and Bernice Slote. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1960.
The Writer's Experience, with Ralph Ellison. Washington, D.C.: Library ofCongress, 1964.
A Prosody Handbook, with Robert Beum. New York, Evanston & London: Harper & Row, 1965.
Randall Jarrell. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1967.
To Abolish Children and Other Essays. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1968.
The Poetry Wreck: Selected Essays 1950 - 1970. New York: Random House, 1975.

IV. Primary Sources — Visual and Performing Arts
“What is missing in American literature, maybe in all our arts . . . is sensuality. Creatively speaking, we are the unfulfilled.”
(A Malebolge of Fourteen Hundred Books in To Abolish Children and Other Essays)
"Elegy for a Dead Soldier." Sound Recording. Library of Congress, 1947.
Soldier Songs for Baritone. "Lord, I Have Seen Too Much."Hugo Weisgall. New York: Merrymount Music Press, 1953.
The Tenor. Opera in One Act. Libretto by Karl Shapiro and Ernst Lert. 1957
Karl Shapiro's America. 16mm film by Karl Shapiro and Arthur Hoyle. Santa Monica, CA: Pyramid Films, 1976.
Poets in Person. Karl Shapiro with Joseph Parisi. Sound Cassette. Chicago: Modern Poetry Association, 1991.

V. Primary Sources — Editions, Introductions, Forwards.
"A literature is the expression of a nation's soul, and a great literature leaves nothing out — that is it's greatness. But to leave nothing out means to go against the grain; it means to dissent."
("The Decolonization of American Literature" in To Abolish Children and Other Essays)
American Poetry. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1960
A Correspondence of Americans. Jack Hirschman. Bloomington: Indiana U. Press, 1960.
The Year of the Green Wave, Bruce Cutler. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1960
Tropic of Cancer, Henry Miller. New York: Grove Press, 1961.
Prose Keys to Modern Poetry. New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row, 1962.
Letters of Delmore Schwartz. Selected and Edited by Robert Phillips. Princeton, N.J.:Ontario Review Press, 1984.

VI. Primary Sources — Interviews
"Our freedoms are quietly being stolen from us: by increased invasion of individual privacy, by more and more standardization of ideas, by the presence of the military in our midst and the terrorization of people by scientists and diplomats, by various forms of intellectual regimentation at almost every level of society, and by the destruction of sensibility through image-making machines and institutions."
("The Image of the Poet in America" in To Abolish Children and Other Essays)
Talks with Authors, Charles F. Madden, ed. Transcript of Telephone Conversation. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968.
Karl Shapiro: An Interview on "Poetry" the Magazine. Triquarterly, 43 1978 197 -215.
Trying To Present America: A Conversation with Karl Shapiro. Philip L. Gerber, ed. Southern Humanities Review, 15:3 Summer 1981 193-208.
Poetry and Family: An Interview with Karl Shapiro. Andrea Gale Hammer. Prairie Schooner, 55:3 Fall 1981 3-31.
The Art of Poetry XXXVI Karl Shapiro. Robert Phillips. The Paris Review, 28:99 Spring 1986, 183-216.

VII. Primary Sources — Articles
"The business of criticism is discrimination, pure and simple. . . A work of criticism may become a work of art only when the critic is in love with his subject and is carried away by it exactly as the poet is carried away by his."
("The Critic In Spite of Himself" in In Defense of Ignorance)
"A Poet Dissects the Modern Poets," New York Times Magazine. September 3, 1945, 45-46.
"The Jewish Writer," New Masses, 57 November 6, 1945, 23-24.
"A Note on American Poetry," Poetry, 69 February 1947, 273-275.
"A Farewell to Criticism," Poetry, 71 January 1948, 196-217.
"Prosody as the Meaning," Poetry, 73 March 1949, 336-351.
"The Question of the Pound Award," Partisan Review, 16 May 1949, 512-522.
"The Jewish Writer and the English Literary Tradition," Commentary, 7October 1949, 369-370.
"Brassai: Poetic Focus on France," Art News, 53 February 1955, 46-47, 69-70.
"Dylan Thomas," Poetry, 87 November 1955, 100-110.
"Editorial," Prairie Schooner, 30 Winter 1956, 309-311.
"Romanticism Comes Home," Prairie Schooner, 31 Fall 1957, 182-183.
"Why Out-Russia Russia?" The New Republic, 138 June 9, 1958, 10-12.
"Modern Poetry as Religion," American Scholar, 28 Summer 1959, 297-305.
"The Critic In Spite of Himself," Texas Quarterly, 2 Autumn 1959, 29-39.
"What's The Matter with Poetry?" The New York Times Book Review, December 13, 1959 1, 22.
"The Jewish Writer in America," American Judaism, 9 Passover 1960, 10-11, 22-27.
"Whitman Today," Walt Whitman Review, 6 June 1960, 31-32.
"Is Poetry an American Art," College English, 25 March 1964, 395-405.
"Class of '67: The Gentle Desperadoes," The Nation, 204 June 19, 1967, 776-777.
"Creative Glut," Poetry, 136 October 1979 36-50
"Critic Outside," American Scholar, 50 Spring 1981, 197 -210.
"The Golden Albatross," American Scholar, 55 Winter '85/'86, 77-96.

VIII. Secondary Sources — Books
“The best of Karl Shapiro, his poetry, is meticulously neoclassical in technique, outrageously middle-class in subject matter, and casually nihilistic in philosophy.”
-- Joseph Reino
Bartlett, Lee. Karl Shapiro: A Descriptive Bibliography 1933-1977. New York: Garland Publishing Company, 1979.
Glassberg, Rose. Karl Shapiro: Poet Versus Critic. Temple University PhD Thesis, 1972.
Keltner, Jeanie Ellen. Karl Shapiro: The Bourgeois Poet. UCLA PhD Thesis, 1973.
Oostdijk, Diederik. Karl Shapiro and "Poetry: A Magazine of Verse". University of Nijmegan PhD Thesis, 2000.
Reino, Joseph. Karl Shapiro. Boston, Twayne Publishers, 1981.
Walker, Sue B. ed. Seriously Meeting Karl Shapiro. Mobile: Negative Capability, 1993.
White, William. Karl Shapiro: A Bibliography. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1960.

IX. Secondary Sources — Articles
“Shapiro takes a stance in the midst of the very definite everyday world. His manner is straightforward — with no unusual difficulties of symbolism or learned reference, no oddities of style. The poems are clear statements of an alert, intelligent, and humane person who unabashedly concentrates on things as they are; that is, they reflect the knowledge and experience of a man thoroughly aware of his time and his surroundings.”
-- Ralph J. Mills, Jr.
Aiken Conrad. "Karl Shapiro" in A Reviwer's ABC. New York: Meridian Books, 1958, pp. 358-364.
Daiches, David. "The Poetry of Karl Shapiro" Poetry, 56 August 1945, 266-273.
Glicksberg, Charles I. "Karl Shapiro and the Personal Accent" Prairie Schooner, 22 Spring 1948, 44-52.
Malkoff, Karl. "The Self in the Modern World: Karl Shapiro's Jewish Poems," in Contemporary American-Jewish Literature, edited by Irving Malin. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973.
Miller, D. "Literary Lives." Sewanee Review Spring, 1989 v. 97 N2, 283-288.
Mills, Ralph J., Jr. "Karl Shapiro" in Contemporary American Poetry. New York: Random House, 1965.
Phillips, Robert. "Poetry, Prosody, and Meta-Poetics: Karl Shapiro's Self-Reflexive Poetry," in Poetics in the Poem: Critical Essays on American Self-Reflexive Poetry, ed. Dorothy Z. Baker. New York: Peter Lang, 1997. pp. 149-164.
Rubin, L.D. "Karl Shapiro (1913-2000) - He Took His Stands." Sewanee Review, Spring 2001 v. 109 N1 108-119.
Stepanchev, Stephen. "Karl Shapiro" in American Poetry Since 1945. New York: Harper and Row, 1965, pp. 53-68.
Waggoner, Hyatt H. American Poets from the Puritans to the Present. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968.
Williams, William Carlos. "Shapiro Is All Right" Kenyon Review, 8 Winter 1946, 123-126.

X. Secondary Sources — Reviews
“He is a poet of rare intellectual strength, he has an exceptional power of being able to think of a poem as a single idea, and he has an interesting and perhaps passionate personality.”
-- Stephen Spender
Berryman, John. "From the Middle and Senior Generations" American Scholar, 28 Summer 1959, 384-90.
Carruth, Hayden. "In Defense of Karl Shapiro" New Republic, 142 Jun 20, 1960, 19-20.
Ciardi, John. "Poets of the Inner Landscapes" Nation, 177 Nov 14, 1953, 410.
Cowley, Malcolm. "A Lively and Deadly Wit" Poetry, 61 Feb 1943, 620-22.
Daiches, David. "A Poet's Poems about Poetry" New York Herald Tribune Books, Jan 6, 1946, p.5.
Ellman, Richard. "A Poet Turns Critic" New York Times Book Review, May 8, 1960, p. 10.
Fiedler, Leslie. "On the Road: or the Adventures of Karl Shapiro" Poetry, 96 June 1960, 171-78.
Fitzgerald, Robert. "The Present State of Poetry" New Republic, 118 Jan 5, 1948, 25-26.
Flint, R.W. "Poetry, Prose and Potboilers" New York Times Book Review, July 25, 1976, p.6
Gunn, Thom. "Poetry as Written" Yale Review, 48 Dec 1958, 297-305.
Hoffman, Daniel. "Constraints and Self-Determination" Poetry, 114 Aug 1969, 336-38.
Jack, Peter M. "The New Book of Poetry" New York Times Book Review, Jan 3, 1943, p. 11.
Jarrell, Randall. "Verse Chronicle" Nation, 167 July 17, 1948, 80-81.
Kazin, Alfred. "The Poet Against the English Department" Reporter, 22 Jun 9, 1960, 44-47.
Koch, Vivienne. "Poets Look Beyond the War" New York Herald Tribune Books, October 29, 1944, p. 14.
Kohler, Dayton. "Karl Shapiro:Poet in Uniform" College English, 7 February 1946, 243-49.
Lauter, P. "Jewish Hero: Two Views" New Republic, 139 Nov 24, 1958, 18.
O'Connor, William Van. "Karl Sapiro: the Development of a Talent" College English, 10 November 1948, 71-77.
Rodman, Selden. "Poets in Wartime" New Republic, 107 December 21, 1942, 834.
Rosenthal, M.L. "The Shapiro Question" Nation, 187 July 5, 1958, 14-15.
Schwartz, Delmore. "The Poet's Progress" Nation, 156 Jan 9, 1943, 63-64.
Spender, Stephen. "The Power and the Hazard" Poetry, 71 March 1948, 314-18.
Wolf, Leonard. "Record of a Sacred Wound" New York Times Book Review, Sept. 7, 1958, p.10.