Conjunctions connect the clauses of compound sentences.

@ In addition   @
to pure conjunctions there are a few common words and phrases that often occur in compound sentences whose grammatical category vacillates between that of conjunctions and that of conjunction modifiers (adverbs). Some are clearly adverbs, some modify conjunctions, others are sometimes conjunctions, sometimes adverbs. Because they are so commonplace in colloquial Russian, you should be familiar with them and their usage.

@  Мало того "let alone"  

This adverb is used often between the clauses of a compound sentence in the sense of "let alone", "not only", "not to mention"; in other words, when the subordinate clause adds information to that in the main clause, information which is considered more important than that in the main clause.

Мало того, что он взял мою сумку, ещё и врал о краже.
Not only did he steal my purse, he lied about the theft.
Мало того, что он пригласил мою подругу, он ей предложил брак.
Bad enough he invited my girlfriend, he proposed to her.

@  Тем не менее "nonetheless"  

"Nonetheless" implies that something was done despite the event or state described in the main clause and often intensifies но or хоть. Notice that the literal translation, "no less by that" is very similar to that of the English correlate.

Лена пришла в шортах, но её тем не менее пропустили в ресторан.
Lena arrived in shorts but they nonetheless let her in the restaurant.
Хоть очень занят, я тем не менее приду.
Although I'm quite busy, I'll come.
Книга была скучна, но он тем не менее дочитал ее до конца
Although the book was boring, he nonetheless read it to the end.

@  Всё-таки "all the same"

Всё-таки "all the same, anyway" emphasizes contradiction or contrast and hence also often accompanies the conjunction а. It can usually be used interchangeably with тем не менее.

Лена пришла в шортах, но ее всё-таки пропустили в ресторан.
Lena arrived in shorts but they let her in the restaurant all the same.
Хотя было холодно, Марко всё-таки пошёл на работу.
Though it was very cold, Marko went to work all the same.
Было много движения на улице, но Марко все-таки ехал быстро.
Traffic was heavy but Marko drove fast anyway.

@Сверх того, кроме того "moreover"

These two conjunctive modifiers indicate the addition of whatever is described in the subordinate clause to what is mentioned in the main clause. They also imply that the addition may be more important than the content of the main claus. They translate English "moreover", "not to mention the fact that", "in addition".

Дарья упрекла Игоря, a сверх того, она отняла ключи от машины.
Darya told Igor off and, in addition, she took away his car keys.
Боря купил жене подарок а, кроме того, испёк ей торт на именины.
Borya bought his wife a present and, in addition, baked her a cake for her nameday (birthday).

@К тому же "besides"

This conjunction indicates that the clause it introduces will describe an addition to whatever is mentioned in the main clause. Another translation which often works is "in addition to" or "additionally".

Он слишком занят, чтобы поехать в Россию; к тому же, он не говорит по-русски.
He's too busy to go to Russia; besides he doesn't speak Russian.
Я не люблю выходить в кафе; к тому же, сегодня очень холодно.
I don't like to go out to cafes; besides, its very cold today.
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