The Biogeographer

Newsletter of the Biogeography Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers

Electronic Version Volume 1 No. 1 Fall 2000

President's Column

Biogeography and the BSG: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead

Glen M. MacDonald, BSG Chair

Geographers are often faulted for being too introspective about the state and future of their discipline, so I hesitate to burden you with yet another such consideration. However, having been Chair of the BSG for the past year, I've spent some time contemplating the past achievements and future challenges of our Group. Over this last year I have also gotten to know many of you, and feel that you will be generous enough to permit me a few ruminations on our discipline and the BSG in these next two issues of the newsletter.

So, where to begin? Well, I took a look through the last few years of AAG meeting programs to remind me of what we, biogeographers, do. I must say the scope of the discipline as reflected in those past programs is incredible. We have had talks and sessions on topics ranging from disturbance frequencies in the past, to conservation of ecosystems in modern urban environments, to theoretical models of plant invasions prompted by future climate change. The geographic range of our efforts is equally impressive. Members of the BSG and their students have experience working in regions extending from the equator to above the arctic circle. From tropical forests, to deserts, to arctic tundra you will find the BSG in action! Looking at the titles and abstracts in more detail, one finds that our members use a large array of techniques to address their research goals. Biogeographers, band birds, collect vegetation quadrat data, core lakes and trees, identify microscopic fossils, measure anions, cations and isotopes, classify satellite imagery, apply GIS and sophisticated statistics, and develop abstract theories on how the biosphere works. In additions to presentations at the AAG, the fruits of our labors are dispensed to the scientific community in a variety of journals such as the Annals, Journal of Biogeography, Quaternary Research, Ecology, and Science. With our commendable research profile has come the appointment of biogeographers to many important national and international editorial boards, panels, and working groups.

As I have outlined above, it is very clear that the study of biogeography is thriving. My, admittedly biased, judgement is that we have not had such an active and rigorous research core for many years. I would hazard a guess that there are several reasons for this. First, for over twenty years physical geography and biogeography in the United States have moved away from the regional generalist approach and embraced a more substantive and technical specialist model of scholarship. The concept of the geographer as regional generalist has a romantic appeal, but it is often not a good model in which to compete in today's technically sophisticated research world. As well as producing new biogeographers who can and do succeed in applying sophisticated techniques to 'big' questions, geography has become less parochial in bringing in new talent to its ranks. Biogeographers have entered the field and the BSG from many different disciplines. I know many current members, both faculty and students, who hold one degree or another from disciplines such as biology, geology or chemistry. Indeed, I even know of one astrophysicist who has joined our ranks. This has introduced both technical expertise and a good dose of intellectual hybrid vigor. Finally, the pressing research problems that face us now due to human actions are ideally suited for the skills of the biogeographer. Consider challenges such as the determining and mitigating the impact of global climate change, planning the location of conservation areas to maintain biodiversity, or reconstructing natural disturbance regimes at stand to landscape scales. These are all inherently biogeographical problems. In particular, the breadth of social, physical and bio sciences found in geography departments places us in an ideal environment to tackle problems relating to human impacts on the biosphere.

As my musings indicate, I feel biogeographers have enjoyed success and will continue to do so. Why then do I also have a tingling of unease about the discipline and the BSG? Perhaps, because I fear that forces behind our successes can very easily be more centrifugal than gravitational. By becoming more specialized in order to compete for research opportunities with our colleagues in geography and beyond, we may find less and less in common with other biogeographers. The techniques and approaches I use to study the fossil insects from a lake sediments can be very far removed from those used by biogeographer applying remote sensing and GIS to look at forest fragmentation patterns and spatial statistics. Biogeographers often find themselves participating in widely different professional societies and meetings. Some of us interested in climate change frequent the American Geophysical Union, while other biogeographers interested in questions of stand dynamics likely frequent the Ecological Society of America. Similarly, we often read and publish in very different journals.

It seems to me the real challenge faced by biogeographers working within geography departments is not that of proving the excellence and value of our research outside of the discipline. It is very clear that BSG members are serving as true national and international leaders in a number of interdisciplinary research areas. Rather, our greatest challenge comes from maintaining a lively dialogue and a sense of community within the ranks of biogeographers. It might be argued at this point, that such a goal is laudable, but not intrinsic to our success as individual scientists. Such an argument is short sighted. One of our greatest strengths is that biogeographers often have a wider perspective than found in more narrowly focused disciplines. By turning our backs on geographical biogeography we diminish our range of vision. If we allow geography to become too amorphous an entity we invite a decline in our ranks within geography. This happens when departments decide to expand or replace faculty members, and pass over the chance of searching for a biogeographer because the area is perceived as marginal to geography. Similarly, a low profile for biogeography within geography invites neglect by funding bodies such as the Geography Panel at NSF. By not fostering a common identity we do a disservice to our graduate students who then do not have the benefit of interacting with other biogeographers, and do not have the opportunity of securing positions in geography. It is a tough enough job getting a position in a biology department with a biology Ph.D., and much tougher if one comes with a geography doctorate instead.

So there is the irony, our success in specialization and in contributing to areas outside of geography can invite a destructive fragmentation. Therein lies the challenge to the BSG and its members. We must both foster continued excellence in increasingly sophisticated research endeavors and education, and at the same time promote a general dialogue and sense of community. Are we succeeding at this? I am worried on this score because the BSG, despite its successes, has not been growing in membership or profile within the AAG. We must do better. I invite you to ponder how we and the BSG can contribute to this goal. I will share some of my thoughts in the next newsletter.


BSG Business Meeting

Minutes of the Biogeography Specialty Group Business Meeting

Pittsburgh, PA 5 April 2000

Chair Glen MacDonald called the meeting to order at 6:30ish.

Board members were recognized for their service during the preceding year. Board members include: Katrina Moser, John Kupfer, Philip Keating, Keith Hadley.

Chair MacDonald informed the group that Duane Griffin will be the new BSG Newsletter Editor. He also thanked the outgoing editor, Eric Edlund, for his service to the specialty group.

Elections Committee chair Phil Keating reported that the two new Board members will be Jim Dyer and Jim Welch.

The Henry Cowles Award winner for 2000 is Tom Veblen. Glen commented on the valuable contributions Tom and his students have made to Biography and to the field of vegetation science in general.

The J.J. Parsons Award winner for 2000 is Tom Vale. Several comments from nomination letters were read. All expressed strong support for Tom as a "worthy recipient."

Student Paper Competition coordinator, Katrina Moser, announced that Susy Ziegler was the 1999 award winner. The judges had not made a decision for the 2000 award as there were still student paper presentations slated later in the week.

BSG members were reminded that the BSG directory was being updated. Contact Keith Hadley if your name begins with a letter between A-M, or Susy Ziegler if your name begins with a letter between N-Z. This is an excellent place to tout your work and network with like-minded folks. Their emails are: and, respectively.

The URL for the BSG now resides at UCLA. One can access it through the AAG homepage: or go directly to the site by using the URL>. The BSG officers urge all to visit the site and provide input (or volunteer) to help make it a valuable resource. If possible, hot link it from your site so we can have a broader audience become more familiar with our group and our research.

Outgoing Secretary/Treasurer, McDonald reported that the BSG had about $ 810 in the account with $100 encumbered for the 1999 Student Competition Award winner Susy Ziegler.

There was a discussion on the format of the BSG Newsletter. The idea of an electronic only newsletter was suggested. Advantages cited included easy to archive, live connections to abstracts and other web and researcher sites. Others felt a hard copy was still a good idea. Another idea that was brought up included the time of year the newsletter should be issued. The issue was not resolved but will be revisited later.

The next item discussed during the meeting was BSG dues. Susan Beatty reminded the group that the dues were set to be able to provide research funds for graduate students. Sally Horn stressed that the BSG research awards were unique among specialty groups and have been able to help graduate students complete fieldwork.

Mark Blumler reviewed the 2000 IGU meeting to be held in Seoul, Korea. Clarissa Kimber has stepped down as our point person for this connection. The meeting will be held in August. At the meeting there will be a Biogeography Symposium focused on Biodiversity and Teaching Ecology and Biogeography to Teachers. This is a major step for Biogeography to get a Commission permanently established with the IGU. Andrew Millington is the principal contact for information.

A call was made for sessions to be held during the 2001 New York meeting. Potential sessions were identified as Direction of Biogeography as a plenary session, an illustrated poster session in Applied Biogeography - contact Ken Young, Biogeography in Conservation - contact Kim Medley, and Zoobiogeography - contact Mike DeMers.

Research grants went to Kim C. Diver and Michael Pisaric and Kelly Pohl.

The Gale and Wilmott book is still in the works. BSG members are being asked to cull down their work to fit page assignments. Updates later.

The meeting was adjourned for a cool one by our fearless leader MacDonald at 7:30

Respectfully submitted,

Darrel L. McDonald


BSG Board: Call for Nominations

The January issue of The Biogeographer will include ballots for two new BSG board members to serve from June 2001 - June 2003. Please send nominations to Jim Dyer as soon as possible.

James Dyer
Associate Professor
Department of Geography
Ohio University
Athens OH 45701-2979
PH 740/593-1142
FX 740/593-1139

BSG Award Winners

John Kupfer

Biogeography Specialty Group Student Research Grant competition.

The BSG is pleased to announce the winners of the Biogeography Specialty Group Student Research Grant competition. We received an exceptionally high number of applications this year (11) from students at 10 different institutions. Although we normally make one award each at the doctoral and masters levels, we opted to add a second smaller award at the doctoral level because of the large number of high quality submissions (heck, an 18% acceptance rate would make us more selective than NSF!). For their hard work and input, I would especially like to thank the judges for this year’s competition: Alan Taylor, Jim Dyer and Phil Townsend. The winners at the Ph.D. level were Mike Pisaric (Queen’s University) and Kim Diver (Syracuse University). The winner at the masters level was Kelly Pohl (Portland State University). Here is a short summary of each proposal:

Mike Pisaric "Tree line Dynamics and the Paleoecological History of the Northern Rocky Mountains" Although the link between climate and vegetation is not fully understood, it is believed that the tree line ecotone is sensitive to changes in climate, particularly fluctuations in temperature; therefore, the position and morphology of this geographical boundary could serve as important indicators of climate change in Canada. The proposed study will investigate the relationship between climate and vegetation in northern British Columbia and the southern Yukon Territory of northwestern Canada. Vegetation and climate dynamics will be investigated at several temporal and spatial scales using fossil pollen and stomates in lake sediment and radial growth records from temperature sensitive Picea glauca (White spruce) trees. Mike’s supervisors on this project have been the late Julian Szeicz and Robert Gilbert.

Kim Diver "Biogeography of Island Flora in the Georgian Bay, Lake Huron, Ontario".

The proposed research is designed to investigate factors affecting spatial and temporal variation of plant species richness on islands within the Massasauga Provincial Park in the Georgian Bay. To do so, Ms. Diver will examine a large sample of islands and investigate a number of related factors in order to draw conclusions about spatial variations of species richness among freshwater islands and to incorporate forest dynamics as a temporal axis to judge the permanence of that richness. Kim’s advisor is Jake Bendix.

Kelly Pohl "Climatic variation and forest disturbance in Central Oregon". The objective of Ms. Pohl’s proposal is to examine the temporal relationship between climatic variation, fire, and insect outbreak in central Oregon. This will be done by creating a local and regional climate history using tree rings and the existing instrumental record, developing fire chronologies and Pandora moth outbreak histories using historical records and tree ring series, and exploring links between climatic anomalies and fire and insect outbreaks. The project aims to develop a methodological approach to separating the tree ring width signatures of climatic variation, fire, and insect outbreak. Kelly’s advisor is Keith Hadley.

H.C. Cowles Award

Every year the BSG presents an award for the best paper or book published in biogeography. The award is named after the eminent turn of the century biogeographer and ecologist Henry C. Cowles. The winning publication for this year is:

Veblen, T.T, T. Kitzberger, R. Villalba, and J. Donnegan. 1999. Fire history in northern Patagonia: The roles of humans and climatic variation. Ecological Monographs 69:47-67.

In this paper, Tom Veblen and his colleagues examined the interactive effects of humans and climatic variation on fire history in northern Patagonia by dating fire scars at 21 sites in rain forests of Fitzroya cupressoides and xeric woodlands of Austrocedrus chilensis in northern Patagonia.

The authors found a strong correspondence in the years of widespread fire at sample sites dispersed over a north-south distance of 400 km, indicating a strong climatic influence on fire occurrence at an annual scale. However, reconstructions of regional precipitation and temperature show a steeply declining influence of climatic variability on fire occurrence from annual to multidecadal scales. In particular, they found that precipitation and, hence, fire regimes in northern Patagonia, were significantly influenced by high-latitude blocking events, which drive westerly cyclonic storms northward. Variations at decadal to centennial time scales in major circulation features, such as ENSO activity and the meridionality of regional air flow at high latitudes, as well as changes in the degree of coupling of these features, influence climate and fire regimes of northern Patagonia. One conclusion from the paper is that although climatic variability overrides human influences on fire regimes at an interannual scale, human activity is an equally important determinant of fire frequency at multidecadal scales.

Parsons Distinguished Career Award. This year, the Parsons Award, which is named in honor of long-time Univ. of California- Berkeley professor James J. Parsons, was given to Dr. Tom Vale, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Tom was nominated for this award by three BSG members, Kathleen Parker, Al Parker and Jake Bendix, based on his outstanding record of research, teaching and advising, and service to the field of biogeography.

Excerpt from Al and Kathy Parker's Letter Nominating Tom Vale for the Parsons Award.

Tom Vale is ideal for this award by all of the usual standards that might be employed to evaluate career success. These we will articulate below. However, it seems particularly appropriate to recognize Tom Vale with the Parsons Award, because Jimmy Parsons was such an influential force in his intellectual development as a graduate student at Berkeley in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Both Dan Luten (his major professor) and Jimmy Parsons played key roles in shaping the distinctive vision of geography that illuminates Tom’s work. Tom Vale is but one example of the profound legacy left to us by the good work of Jimmy Parsons.

Tom Vale quickly emerged as a careful thinker, a seeker of balance, in his master’s research on the then-contemporary environmental controversies surrounding land preservation and management associated with the coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirons). Testimony to the efficacy of this study was that it ruffled feathers of both environmentalists and development advocates. He followed this with a dissertation that painstakingly detailed the archival evidence of 19th century vegetation cover in the Great Basin. This portrayed Tom Vale as historian, logician, and landscape enthusiast.

Upon formal completion of his Ph.D. in 1973, he joined the faculty at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he has served faithfully for some 27 years. As might be expected, he rose through the academic ranks in a timely manner, and has served that top-ranked department as an outstanding citizen, taking his turn as Chair in the early 1990s and investing enormous energy in promoting the well-being of geography in the state of Wisconsin. Perhaps little known in biogeography circles, the wonderful collection of geographical essays entitled Wisconsin Land and Life (co-edited with Bob Ostergren) is a testimony to his endearment to the state and its people.

But Tom Vale is ultimately a Westerner, an observer of landscapes and people in landscapes, an environmental and social critic with a strong conscience. As might be expected, he has published an impressive array of journal articles on biogeographic themes in journals such as the Annals of the AAG, the Professional Geographer, the Geographical Review, Environmental Conservation, American Midland Naturalist, and dozens of others that we cannot recall without benefit of his vitae. Ranging from early field studies, such as his seminal work on meadow invasions and landscape change in western parklands, to more contemplative efforts such as his classic "Park Purposes" paper in the 1987 Annals or his provocative "Clear-cutting and Human Wisdom" paper in the 1988 GR, Tom has not shied away from engaging deeper philosophical issues, while at the same time deftly producing solid scientific contributions to our understanding of the vegetation cover around us. His Plants and People AAG Resource Paper, now nearly 20 years old, remains a fresh and insightful read to this day.

His production of scholarly books, most often written collaboratively with his gifted spouse, Gerry Vale, is truly impressive. Witness, among others: U.S. 40 Today, a study in repeat photography of landscape change based on the classic original of George Russell Stewart; Western Images, Western Landscapes, a photographic essay and transect of the Intermountain West; Time and Tuolumne Meadows, another gem of repeat photography and an expression of love for what may be his favorite spot on earth; Walking With Muir across Yosemite, another reverie of landscape past and present.

Finally, this letter would not be complete without acknowledging Tom Vale, the teacher. From Introductory Physical Geography to his Biogeography Seminar, Tom is the consummate instructor–knowledgeable, organized, challenging, caring, and memorable. An outstanding mentor, Tom has produced a number of Ph.D. students besides ourselves; among them are Jeanne Kay, Craig Allen, John Metz, Robin White, Bill Baker, Duane Griffin, and Suzy Ziegler (with apologies to those we have left off). Perhaps most telling are the generations of teaching assistants at Wisconsin who have learned how to teach by mimicking the Tom Vale example.

The discipline of geography, and specifically biogeography, has been enriched in myriad ways by the writings, teachings, and thoughts of Tom Vale. He provides a clear and compelling example of an engaged scholarly life. He is most deserving of the Parsons Award, the BSG’s way of celebrating the career contributions of its most distinguished practitioners.

Respectfully submitted,

Albert J. Parker


Kathleen C. Parker

Professor and Associate Head

IGU-BSG Report

Mark Blumler, AAG-BSG

representative to the International Geographical Union-Biogeography Study Group


Why Participate in the IGU?

Andrew Millington (U. of Leicester) organized the Biogeography Study Group for two main reasons: 1) to facilitate collaborative international research, and 2) to internationalize the subdiscipline. In many countries, biogeographers are few and far between, and there is no large group of colleagues with which one can interact (in contrast with the USA). Especially in some developing countries, biogeographers often are extremely isolated; they might benefit enormously from the existence of an international organization that holds conferences which they can attend, and where they can interact with American and other Western biogeographers.

In late May I participated in the Biogeography Study Group conference in Yerevan, Armenia, on "Biogeographical and Ecological Aspects of Desertification Processes in Arid and Semiarid Environments." The Armenian biogeographers were markedly cut off from recent currents in ecology and biogeography. They were still essentially Russian in their approach, with an emphasis on life zones, edaphic controls on plant distribution, and an equilibrium view of ecosystems and of human impacts. There appeared to be little if any hypothesis testing or use of statistics. I don't think there is any question that they benefited from being exposed to some non-equilibrium thinking (from Andy and me). Collaborative research poses some difficulties because the country is so backward in many respects, but it appears likely that Andy will initiate a project as soon as next year, and I think I also will be back to pursue studies of wild wheat or tragacanths (spiny cushion plants), though not right away. Meanwhile, it looks as though I may join an ongoing research project of Andy's in Jordan. So from my point of view, at least, the conference was a success.

In addition, Armenia is the sort of off-the-beaten-track locale that geographers love. Armenia offers spectacular scenery and fascinating geology; a highly diverse flora (3500 spp. in an area of about 10,000 mi2); a possible cradle of early agriculture; an unusual ethnic makeup that reflects a long history of cultural interactions (for instance, one hitchhiker we picked up turned out to be a Yezidi, sometimes castigated as "devil worshippers", but more accurately reflecting Zoroastrian/Manichean influence); a built environment featuring a curious mixture of traditional Middle Eastern villages and Soviet development projects (apartment buildings, power plants, massive dams, etc.); and towering over it all the giant strato-volcano of Mt. Ararat (actually just across the Turkish border), which is the tallest mountain on earth — if you measure from base to summit, and exclude the below sea-level portions of mountains such as Mauna Loa. Botanically, the field trips were simply wonderful.

On the other hand, the trip was expensive. This is commonly the case with IGU conferences, and it severely limits participation. Hopefully this issue will be addressed in the future.

The Future of the

Biogeography Study Group

IGU Study Groups are temporary organizations. If successful, the BSG will be accepted in the near future as the Commission on Biogeography. If not, the BSG will disband. IGU Commissions typically are organized around some pressing problem (land degradation, poverty, urban crowding, etc.) The BSG has proposed that our theme should be biodiversity.

To be deemed successful by the IGU, the BSG must hold regular conferences in several parts of the globe, and show some evidence of scientific output. With respect to the latter, there is an edited book in the works, tentatively titled "Handbook of Biogeography", to be published by Sage. The idea is to cover all (or as many as possible) of the different approaches, methodologies, subfields, issues, etc., including not only Anglo-American biogeography but also the varieties practiced elsewhere. This is still in a very preliminary stage, and Andrew will provide a more detailed prospectus possibly in the next newsletter. Personally, I think it sounds like an exciting project. Although Sage is not well-known among natural scientists its reputation in the social sciences is very strong, and it is currently making a concerted effort to capture a large share of the market in geography including physical geography.


IGU - Biogeography Study Group


August 11-13, 2000, Seoul **

Fall, 2001, northern India*

August 2002 Durban, South Africa**

2003, Argentina*

August, 2004, Glasgow**

* Tentative

** in conjunction with the IGU

regional congress

BSG Paper and Poster Sessions: 97th Annual Meeting of the AAG

The following people are organizing paper sessions for the 2001 AAG conference (Feb. 27-Mar. 3, New York, NY). Deadlines are September 1 for papers, Sept. 30 for posters and illustrated paper sessions. The Call for Papers is available at

If you are interested in participating in one of the proposed sessions, contact the organizer directly. If you are interested in organizing a paper or poster session, use the BSG Listserver (see the last page for more information.) Better hurry!

Urban Biogeography Barbara Holzman

Applied Biogeography Ken Young

Historical ecology--methods and applications Steve Norman

Fire Biogeography Steve Yool

Zoogeography Mike DeMers

Dendrochronology Jim Speer

Biogeography and Conservation

Kim Medley

Other Conferences

Ecology of Insular Biotas
February 12-16, 2001; Wellington, New Zealand. Pre-registration: June 15, 2000
Abstract deadline: October 1, 2000

Diversity, Complexity, Abundance, Resemblance, Scale Dependence: Theories, Methods, Applications
August 28-September 2, 2001, Balatonfured, Hungary. Preliminary registration deadline: September 30, 2000
Abstract deadline: November 30, 2000


American Geographical Union Creates Biogeosciences Section.

WASHINGTON - The 38,000 member American Geophysical Union has added Biogeosciences as a new Section, by unanimous vote of its governing Council. Biogeosciences is AGU's eleventh section, and the first new one in over 30 years. The

last section was Solar-Terrestrial Relationships, later renamed Space Physics and Aeronomy.

This new section brings together AGU scientists studying diverse fields of earth and planetary sciences that involve biology.

These include astrobiology, the biogeochemistry and biogeophysics of terrestrial and aquatic systems, land-atmosphere interactions, and planetary ecosystems.

The spatial and temporal scales of processes studied within biogeosciences range from the transport of a bacterial cell in a groundwater aquifer to the evolution of life in the solar system. "Future advances in biogeosciences will contribute to a more holistic understanding of the Earth and will help in addressing the many resource and environmental challenges ahead, such as global climate change," says Prof. Diane McKnight of the University of Colorado in Boulder, Acting President of the Biogeosciences Section.

Biogeoscientists, acting as an informal committee within AGU, contributed over 500 oral presentations and posters at AGU's

last Fall and Spring Meetings. The section begins with around 360 members, some of whom are new and some of whom have

transferred from other sections.

AGU Press Release 00-16

June 8, 2000

Editor's note. At $20 per year ($7 for students), membership in the AGU is a bargain. Membership includes a subscription to Eos, an excellent weekly newspaper. See the AGU WWW site at for more information.

BSG Listserver

Subscribe to the BSG-AAG listserver! BSG-AAG is a "quiet" list. A subscription will only add two or three messages per month to your inbox, on average, but these include notes about jobs, funding, and AAG meeting sessions being organized. See the BSG web site for instructions on subscribing to the list

Recent Publications by BSG Members

The citations below are culled from the information provided by members for updating the BSG membership directory, recently updated by Susy Ziegler and Keith Hadley. It does not include in-press/ forthcoming publications or those published prior to 1998. See the BSG directory web page for the complete listing of recent member publications. Publication information for future editions will be based solely on submissions to The Biogeographer, not the BSG directory. So please send your publication information!


Bold indicates the member who submitted information for inclusion; all other formatting preserved.

Amaroli, P. and Dull, R.A. 1999. Milpas prehispanicas en El Salvador. Proceedings of the XII Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueologicas en Guatemala: 639-650.

Arabas, K.B. 2000. Spatial and temporal relationships among fire frequency, vegetation, and soil depth in an Eastern North American Serpentine Barren. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 127(1): 51-65.

Bailey, R.G. 1998. Ecoregions: The Ecosystem Geography of the Oceans and Continents. New York: Springer-Verlag 186 pp.

Bendix, J. (1998). Impact of a flood on southern Californian riparian vegetation. Physical Geography, 19(2):163-175.

Bendix, J. (1999). Stream power influence on southern Californian riparian vegetation. Journal of Vegetation Science, 10(1):243-252.

Bendix, J. and Hupp, C.R. 2000. Hydrologic and geomorphic impacts on riparian plant communities. Hydrological Processes, in press.

Bendix, J. and Liebler, C.M. (1999). Distance, place, and environmental news: Geographic variation in newspaper coverage of the spotted owl conflict. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 89(4):658-676.

Blumler, M.A. 1998. Biogeography of land use impacts in the Near East. In Zimmerer, K.S., and K. R. Young (eds.), Nature's Geography: New Lessons for Conservation in Developing Countries, pp. 215-236. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

Blumler, M.A. 1998. Evolution of caryopsis gigantism and the origins of agriculture. Research in Contemporary and Applied Geography: A Discussion Series 22(1-2):1-46.

Blumler, M.A. 1998. Introgression of durum into wild emmer and the agricultural origin question. In Damania, A. B., J. Valkoun, G. Willcox, and C. O. Qualset (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication, pp. 252-268. ICARDA, Aleppo.

Blumler, M.A. 1999. Edaphic ecology of the wild cereals. Research in Contemporary and Applied Geography: A Discussion Series 23(3-4):1-58.

Caruso, N.L. and M. Goman. 1999. Holocene Sea Level Fluctuations along the New Jersey Shore, In Puffer, J.H. (editor) Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Geological Association of New Jersey (GANJ), October 15-16, 1999.

Colby, J.D. & P.L. Keating. 1998. Land cover classification using Landsat TM imagery in the tropical highlands: the influence of anisotropic reflectance. International Journal of Remote Sensing 19(8):1479-1500.

Conkey, L.E., Keifer, M. and AH Lloyd, A.H. 1995. Disjunct jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) structure and dynamics, Acadia National Park, ME. Écoscience 2:168-176

Cowell, C. M. 1998. Historical change in vegetation and disturbance on the Georgia piedmont. American Midland Naturalist 140: 78-89.

Doerner, J.P., and P. E. Carrara, 1999. Deglaciation and Postglacial Vegetative History of the West Mountains, West-central Idaho. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 31(3): 303-311.

Doerner, J.P., Sullivan, D.G., and Briles, C. 1998. Late Quaternary Eolian Deposition in Colorado Subalpine Lakes. Pp. 135-138. In: Busacca, A.J. (ed.), Dust Aerosols, Loess Soils and Global Change. Washington State University College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Miscellaneous Publication No. MISC0190, Pullman, Washington.

Dull, R. A. 1999. Palynological evidence for 19th century grazing-induced vegetation change in the southern Sierra Nevada, California. Journal of Biogeography 26:899-912.

Dyer, J.M., and K.E. Moffett. 1999. Meadow invasion from high-elevation spruce-fir forest in south-central New Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 44: 445-457.

D. Edelson, B. Clark, M. Brown, and D.A. Griffin. 1999. WorldWatcher: A Visualization Program For Our World. (Software CD, Version 2.5 ). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University School of Education and Social Policy.

D.C. Edelson, M. Brown, D.N. Gordin, D.A. Griffin. 1999. Making Visualization Accessible to Students. GSA Today 9(2):8-10

Enright, N. J., J. Ogden, and L.S. Rigg. 1999. Dynamics of forests with Araucariaceae in the western Pacific. Journal of Vegetation Science 10(6): 793-804.

Enright, N.J. and Goldblum, D. 1998. Stand structure of the emergent conifer Agathis ovata in forest and maquis, Province Sud, New Caledonia. Journal of Biogeography. 25: 641-648.

Enright, N.J. and Goldblum, D. 1999. Comparative demography of co-existing Hakea species (Proteaceae), H. decurrens (non-sprouter) and H. rostrata (resprouter), in fire-prone Eucalyptus woodlands, western Victoria, Australia. Plant Ecology 144: 71-82.

Fearn, M.L. 1998. Phytoliths in sediment as indicators of grass pollen source. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 103:75-81.

Feng, X., Cui, H., Tang, K., and Conkey L.E. 1999. Tree-ring dD as an indicator of Asian monsoon intensity. Quaternary Research 51:262-266

Garcia-Oliva, F, R.L. Sanford Jr., and E. Kelly. 1998. Effect of Burning of Tropical Deciduous Forest Soil in Mexico on the Microbial Degradation of Organic Matter. Plant and Soil 206: 29-41.

Goldblum, D. 1997. The effects of treefall gaps on understory vegetation in New York, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science. 8: 125-132.

Goldblum, D. 1998. Regeneration in unmanaged conifer plantations, upstate New York. Northeastern Naturalist. 5: 343-358.

Goldblum, D. and S.W. Beatty. 1999. Influence of an old field/forest edge on a northeastern United States deciduous forest understory community. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 126(4):335-343.

Goman, M. and R. Byrne. 1998. A 5,000 Year Record of Agriculture and Tropical Forest Clearance in the Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. The Holocene 8 (1): 83-89. Works, M.A. and Hadley, K.S. 2000. Hace Cincuenta Años: Repeat Photography and Landscape Change in the Sierra Purépecha of Michoacán, México. Yearbook, Conference of Latin American Geographers. Accepted.

Hadley, K.S. 1999. Forest history and meadow invasion at the Rigdon Meadows Archaeological Site, Western Cascades, Oregon. Physical Geography 20:116-133.

Harrington, L.M.B., J. A. Harrington, Jr., and P. Frenzen. 1998. Vegetation Change in the Mount St. Helens Blast Zone, 1979-1992. Geocarto International 13(1):75-82.

Hewitt, N. 1998. Seed size and shade-tolerance: A comparative analysis of North American temperate trees. Oecologia 114: 432-440.

Holder, C.D., 2000. Geography of Pinus elliottii Engelm. and Pinus palustris Mill. leaf life-spans in the southeastern U.S.A. Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 27.

Horn, S. P., Orvis, K. H., Kennedy, L. M., and Clark, G. M. 2000. Prehistoric fires in the highlands of the Dominican Republic: Evidence from charcoal in soils and sediments. Caribbean Journal of Science, In Press; preprint at

Keating, P.L. 1998. Effects of anthropogenic disturbances on páramo vegetation in Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador. Physical Geography 19(3): 221-238.

Keating, P.L. 1999. Changes in páramo vegetation along an elevation gradient in southern Ecuador. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 126(2):159-175.

Keating, P.L. 2000. Chronically disturbed páramo vegetation at a site in southern Ecuador. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 127(2):162-171.

Kellman, M. C., R. Tackaberry, and L.S. Rigg. 1998. Structure and Function in Two Tropical Gallery Forest Communities: Implications for Forest Conservation in Fragmented Systems. Journal of Applied Ecology 35:195-206.

Lafon, C.W. 1999. Spatial patterns of ice storm occurrence in the New River Valley. New River Symposium Proceedings, pp. 68-77.

Lafon, C.W., D.Y. Graybeal, and K.H. Orvis. 1999. Patterns of ice accumulation and forest disturbance during two ice storms in southwestern Virginia. Physical Geography 20:97-115.

Lafon, C.W., Huston, M.A., and Horn, S.P. In Press. Effects of agricultural soil loss on forest succession rates and tree diversity in East Tennessee. Oikos.

Larsen, C.P.S. 2000. Area burned reconstruction and expression: a comparison of methods. In: Innes, J.L., Verstraete, M.M., and Beniston, M. (Eds.). Biomass Burning and its Inter- Relationships with the Climate System. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Advances in Global Change Research Vol. 3. Boston, pp. 321-339.

Larsen, C.P.S. and MacDonald, G.M. 1998. A 840-year record of fire and vegetation in a boreal white spruce forest. Ecology, 79: 106-118.

Larsen, C.P.S. and MacDonald, G.M. 1998. An 840-year record of fire and vegetation in a boreal white spruce forest. Ecology 79:106-118.

Larsen, C.P.S. and MacDonald, G.M. 1998. Fire and vegetation dynamics in a jack pine and black spruce forest reconstructed using fossil pollen and charcoal. Journal of Ecology 86: 815-828.

Larsen, C.P.S., Pienitz, R., Smol, J.P., Moser, K.A. Cumming, B.F., Blais, J.M., MacDonald, G.M. and Hall, R.I. 1998. Relations between lake morphometry and the presence of laminated sediments: a re-examination of Larsen and MacDonald (1993). Quaternary Science Reviews 17: 711-717.

Leathers, N., and L.M.B. Harrington. 2000. Effectiveness of conservation reserves: Slippage' in Southwestern Kansas. The Professional Geographer 52(1):83-93.

Liu, K.B. and Fearn, M.L. 1998. Holocene history of catastrophic hurricane landfalls along the Gulf of Mexico coast reconstructed from coastal lake and marsh sediments. Compendium Volume of the Gulf Coast Regional Climate Change Workshop, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

MacDonald, G.M., Case, R.A. and Szeicz, J.M. 1998. A 538-year record of climate and treeline dynamics fromthe lower Lena River region of northern Siberia, Russia. Arctic and Alpine Research 30: 334-339.

MacDonald, G.M., Gervais, B.R., Snyder, J.A., Tarasov, G.A. and Borosova, O.K. 2000 Radiocarbon dated Pinus sylvestris L. Wood from beyond treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The Holocene 10: 143-147.

MacDonald, G.M., Szeicz, J.M., Claricoates, J. and Dale, K.A. 1998. Response of the central Canadian treeline to recent climatic changes. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88: 183-208.

MacDonald, G.M., Velichko, A.A., Kremenetski, C.V., Borisova, O.K., Goleva, A.A., Andreev, A.A., Cwynar, L.C., Riding, R.T., Forman, S.L., Edwards, T.W.D., Aravena, R., Hammarlund, D., Szeicz, J.M., Gattaulin, V.N. 2000. Holocene Treeline History and Climate Change Across Northern Eurasia, Quaternary Research 53: 302-311.

Mast, J.N. and Veblen, T.T. 1999. Tree spatial patterns and stand development along the pine- grassland ecotone in the Colorado Front Range. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 9:575-584.

Mast, J.N., Fule, P.Z., Moore, M.M., Covington, W.W., and Waltz, A.E. 1999. Restoration of presettlement age structure of an Arizona ponderosa pine forest. Ecological Applications, 9(1): 228-239.

Mast, J.N., Veblen, T.T., and Linhart, Y. 1998. Disturbance and climatic influences on age structure of ponderosa pine at the pine/grassland ecotone, Colorado Front Range. Journal of Biogeography, 25: 743-755.

Mattoni, R., T. Longcore, and V. Novotny. 2000. Arthropod monitoring for fine scale habitat analysis: A case study of the El Segundo sand dunes. Environmental Management 25(4):445­452

Medley, K.E. 1998. Landscape change and resource conservation along the Tana River, Kenya. Chapter 1 (pp.39-55) in K. Zimmerer and K. Young (eds.). Nature's Geography: Biogeographical Landscapes and Environmental Conservation in Developing Countries.University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

Medley, K.E. 1999. Women's work: a positive for the environment in Madagascar. Women in Natural Resources 20(2): 32-37.

Meentemeyer, Ross K., and David R. Butler, 1999. Hydrogeomorphic effects of beaver dams in Glacier National Park, Montana. Physical Geography 20(5), 436-446.

Meentemeyer, Ross K., John B. Vogler, and David R. Butler, 1998. The geomorphic influences of burrowing beavers on streambanks, Bolin Creek, North Carolina. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie 42(4), 453-468.

Mock, C.J., and Brunelle-Daines, A.R. (1999). A modern analogue of western United States summer palaeoclimate at 6000 years before present. The Holocene 9:541-545.

Moser, K.A., Smol, J.P., Lean, D.R.S. and MacDonald, G.M. 1998. Physical and chemical limnology of northern boreal lakes, Wood Buffalo national Park, northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories, Canada. Hydrobiologia 377: 25-43.

Moser, K.A., Smol, J.P., MacDonald, G.M. and Lean, D.R.S. (1998). Physical and chemical limnology of northern boreal lakes, Wood Buffalo National Park, Northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories, Canada. Hydrobiologia 377:25-43.

Orvis, K. H. 1998. Modern surface pollen from three transects across the southern Sonoran Desert margin, northwestern Mexico. Palynology 22:197-211.

Orvis, K. H., Horn, S. P., and Jumper, S. J. 1999. Pairing K-12 teachers with geographic researchers: why it should take place, and how it can. Journal of Geography 98(4): 196-200.

Parendes, L.A., and J.A. Jones. 2000. Role of Light Availability and Dispersal in Exotic Plant Invasion along Roads and Streams in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Conservation Biology 14 (1):64-75.

Parker, A.J., Parker K.C., and McCay, D.H. 2001. Disturbance-mediated variation in stand structure between varieties of Pinus clausa. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. In press.

Parker, A.J., Parker, K.C., and Wiggins-Brown, H. 2000. Disturbance and scale effects on southern old-growth forests (USA): The sand pine example. Natural Areas Journal. In press.

Parker, E.R. and R.L. Sanford, Jr. 1999. The Effects of Mobile Tree Islands on Soil Phosphorus Concentrations and Distribution in an Alpine Ecosystem. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 31:16-20.

Pienitz, R., Smol, J.P. and MacDonald, G.M. 1999. Paleolimnological reconstruction of Holocene climatic trends from two boreal treeline lakes, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 31: 82-93.

Reed, W.J., Larsen, C.P.S., Johnson, E.A. and MacDonald, G.M. 1998. Estimation of temporal variations in historical fire frequency from time-since-fire map data. Forest Science 44: 465-475.

Reed, W.J., Larsen, C.P.S., Johnson, E.A. and MacDonald, G.M..1998. Estimation of temporal variations in historical fire frequency from dendrochronological time-since-fire map data. Forest Science 44:465-475.

Rigg, L.S., N.J. Enright, and T. Jaffré. 1998. Stand Structure of Emergent Conifer Araucaria laubenfelsii, in Maquis and Rain Forest, Mont Do, New Caledonia. Australian Journal of Ecology 23:528-38.

Sheppard, P.R., Graumlich, L.J., and Conkey, L.E. 1996. Reflected-light image analysis of conifer tree rings for reconstructing climate. The Holocene 6:62-68

Vale, T. R. 1998. The Myth of the Humanized Landscape: An Example from Yosemite National Park. Natural Areas Journal 18:231-236.

Vale, T.R. and G.R. Vale. 1998. Walking with Muir across Yosemite. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 166 pp.

Voeks, R. A. 1998. Environmental Risk and Ethnobotanical Knowledge: Foragers and Farmers in Northern Borneo. In: Zimmerer, K. and Young, K. (eds), Nature's Geography: New Lessons for Conservation in Developing Countries. Madision: University of Wisconsin Press, pp.307-326.

Voeks, R. A. 1999. The Roots of Candomble. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Coast Council on Latin American Studies. From the Macro to the Micro: Latin American Studies in a Global and Local Context. 17: 113-125.

Voeks, R. A. 2000. Candomblé Ethnobotany: African Medicinal Plant Classification in Brazil. In: Minnis, P. (ed), Ethnobotany: A Reader. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, pp. 148-171.

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Wolfe, B.B., Edwards, T.W.D. Aravena, Forman, S.L., Warner, B.G., Velichko, A.A., MacDonald, G.M. 2000. Holocene Paleohydrology and Paleoclimate at Treeline, North-Central Russia, Inferred from Oxygen Isotope Records in Lake Sediment Cellulose. Quaternary Research 53: 319-329.

Yansa, C.H. 1998. Holocene Paleovegetation and Paleohydrology of a Prairie Pothole in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Journal of Paleolimnology 19: 429-441.

Yansa, C.H., and J.F. Basinger. 1999. A Postglacial Plant Macrofossil Record of Vegetation and Climate Change in Southern Saskatchewan. In: Holocene Climate and Environmental Change in the Palliser Triangle: A Geoscientific Context for Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Change on the Southern Canadian Prairies, D.S. Lemmen and R.E. Vance (eds.). Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 534: 139-172.

Internet Resources of interest to biogeographers

Culled from the archives of The Internet Scout Project and loosley arranged.

The Internet Scout Project ( is a fantastic resource. Their staff have a particularly good eye for geography-, ecology-, Earth science-oriented material.

In addition to the weekly Scout Report, they publish three specialized reports, The Scout Reports for Science & Engineering, Social Sciences, and Business & Economics. You can receive the electronic mail version of the Scout Report every other Wednesday by subscribing online to the Scout Report for Science & Engineering, go to: The reports are the only mail you'll get from their listserver.

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Biogeography (broadly considered)

The Amazing Story of Kudzu

Assessment of Species Diversity in the Montane Cordillera Ecozone

Checklist of Online Vegetation and Plant Distribution Maps

Plant Map of Costa Rica

History of Palaeozoic Forests

Weeds on the Web -- The Nature Conservancy

Spatial Patterns of New Zealand Bird Diversity

NOAA Paleoclimatology Program: What's New in the Global Pollen Database

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Floras, Faunas, Atlases, and Organisms

Arkansas Biodiversity: The Vascular Flora

Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants--ISB/USF

E-Flora Florida: Illustrated Atlas of Florida Plants

CalFlora Database

California Wildflowers

Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana

The Flowering Plant Gateway

The PLANTS Database (USDA)

Wisconsin Herpetological Atlas Project

Herps of Texas

New Mexico Species List, Reptiles and Amphibians

Tennessee Amphibian Monitoring Program (TAMP)

Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Network (CARCN)

Species in US National Parks: Flora and Fauna Database

The Ants of West Africa

Bird Families of the World: Sibley and Monroe http://www-

"The AOU Check-list of North American Birds," Seventh Edition 1998 [.pdf]

The North American Breeding Bird Survey: Results and Analysis 1966-1996

Forest and Rangeland Birds of the US: Natural History and Habitat Use

The Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi, Africa


Coelacanth: The Fish Out of Time

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Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory

Poisonous Plants Web Pages

Plant Conservation Alliance

Endangered Species UPDATE

People and Ecosystems: The Fraying Web of Life

A Guide to World Resources 2000-2001 [.pdf]

Wetlands ¾ NWF

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment -- WRI [.pdf]

Ecosystem Approach -- USFWS

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Physical Geography

NOAA River Watch

Operational Significant Event Imagery -- NOAA

Topozone (this site holds every USGS 1:100,000, 1:25,000, and 1:24,000 scale map for most of the United States

Tour Canada from Space

PALEOMAP Project [java]

Plate Tectonics from Berkeley

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Directories, etc.

Internet Directory for Botany

Scott's Botanical Links

The Electronic Zoo

Back issues of seven scholarly journals have just been made available to researchers through JSTOR (Journal Storage). JSTOR offers free online access to numerous scholarly journals on a "moving wall" basis -- in which users may download the full text and figures of each article that is at least three-years-old. Newer articles are continually added on a moving wall basis. Access is limited to participating institutions, a list of which is provided at the JSTOR site.

Ecological Applications Vols. 1-6, 1991-1996

Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences Vols. 329-351, 1990-1996

Proceedings: Biological Sciences Vols. 241-263, 1990-1996

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vols. 77-94, 1980-1997

Science Vols. 207-266, 1980-1994

Participating JSTOR Institutions

From The Scout Report for Science & Engineering, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2000.


Editor's Note

I hope you enjoy having The Biogeographer back after a too-long absence. I know that many of you will miss getting the hardcopy version in the mail. I have mixed feelings about the switch away from the trusty old paper version myself.

I know that few of us enjoy reading from a computer screen, so we'll use eighteen sheets of paper to print this out, eight pages more than a traditional version printed on both sides would consume.

Actually, a hardcopy would have only used four sheets, because a hardcopy mailing would have been a lot shorter. One of the advantages of the electronic version is that I can devote time to editorial tasks that otherwise would have gone into preparing and mailing a hardcopy newsletter. In this issue, for example, I used that time to edit the lists of member publications and Internet resources, among other things that wouldn't have been included in a print version. They were a lot more interesting for me to edit. I hope you find them useful.

So welcome to our brave new experiment. Let me know what you think. And spread the word¾ another advantage of this format is that you can forward it to friends, students, relatives or anybody else who doesn't get enough e-mail.

Please send suggestions, comments, news items, web or print resources, brief accounts of your research (including pictures and maps!), recent publication information, or anything else that you think might be appropriate for inclusion in The Biogeographer.

The Biogeographer

Duane A. Griffin, Editor

Bucknell University

Department of Geography

Lewisburg, PA 17837