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SPECIES Cervus nippon

Author:Temminck, 1838.
Citation:Invon Siebold, Temminck and Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Coup d'Oeil Faune Iles Sonde Emp. Japan: xxii.
Common Name:Sika
Type Locality:"Les îles du domaine du Japon"; restricted to Japan, Kyushu, Nagasaki (Groves and Smeenk, 1978).
Distribution:China (Manchuria south to Guangxi, and Sichuan to Anhui), Korea (incl. Cheju Isl), Japan (incl. Tsushima Isls), Russia (Soviet Far East), Taiwan (extinct but reintroduced), and Vietnam. Apparently wild populations now very localised in China. Presumably anciently introduced to Philippines (Solo Isl; still extant?). Introduced in 17th century to Kerama Isls (Ryukyu Isls). Introduced in 19th-20th centuries to British Isles, mainland Europe (Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Kaliningrad, Lithuania, Poland, W Russia, and Ukraine), New Zealand, USA, and small islands off Japan.
Status:U.S. ESA – Endangered as C. n. grassianus, C. n. keramae, C. n. kopschi, C. n. mandarinus, and C. n. taiouanus; IUCN – Critically Endangered as C. n. grassianus, C. n. keramae, C. n. mandarinus, C. n. taiouanus, and C. n. pseudaxis, Endangered as C. n. sichuanicus and C. n. kopschi, Data Deficient as C. n. aplodontus, C. n. mantchuricus, C. n. pulchellus, and C. n. yesoensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc).
Comments:Further described by Temminck in von Siebold, Temminck and Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Aperçu Gén. Spéc. Mamm. Japon, p. 54, pl. 17 [1844] as Cervus sika. Includes hortulorum, taiouanus and pulchellus, which were considered species by Imaizumi (1970a). Includes soloensis, see Grubb and Groves (1983). Revised in part by Groves and Smeenk (1978) who included mageshimae and yakushimae in nominate nippon, and noted that aplodontus has priority over centralis. Reviewed by Feldhamer (1980, Mammalian Species, 128) and Banwell (1999). Native and introduced populations seriously threatened by genetic pollution; numerous populations are of uncertain provenance or have mixed ancestry; status of hortulorum is particularly uncertain.
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SUBSPECIES aplodontus

SUBSPECIES grassianus

SUBSPECIES hortulorum



SUBSPECIES mageshimae

SUBSPECIES mandarinus

SUBSPECIES mantchuricus

SUBSPECIES pseudaxis

SUBSPECIES pulchellus

SUBSPECIES sichuanicus

SUBSPECIES soloensis

SUBSPECIES taiouanus

SUBSPECIES yakushimae

SUBSPECIES yesoensis


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