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SPECIES Odocoileus hemionus

Author:Rafinesque, 1817.
Citation:Am. Mon. Mag., 1: 436.
Common Name:Mule Deer
Type Locality:USA, South Dakota, mouth of Big Sioux River (Bailey, 1926:41).
Distribution:W Canada, Mexico (Baja California and Sonora to N Tamaulipas), W USA east to Minnesota, and Alaskan Panhandle. Introduced to Kauai (Hawaiian Isls) and Argentina.
Status:U.S. ESA Endangered as O. h. cedrocensis [sic; = cerrosensis]; IUCN Endangered as O. h. cerrosensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc).
Comments:Revised by Cowan (1936); reviewed by Anderson and Wallmo (1984, Mammalian Species, 219) and Geist (1998). The species can be partitioned into the columbianus division or Black-tailed Deer (including also sitkensis) and the nominate hemionus division or Mule Deer sensu stricto (including also californicus, cerrosensis, eremicus, fuliginatus, inyoensis, peninsulae, and sheldoni). Dorcelaphus crooki Mearns, 1897 is based on a hybrid between O. virginianus and O. hemionus (Heffelfinger, 2000).
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SUBSPECIES californicus

SUBSPECIES cerrosensis

SUBSPECIES columbianus


SUBSPECIES fuliginatus

SUBSPECIES inyoensis

SUBSPECIES peninsulae


SUBSPECIES sitkensis


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