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SPECIES Sus scrofa

Author:Linnaeus, 1758.
Citation:Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1: 49.
Common Name:Wild Boar
Type Locality:"Habitat in Europa australiore"; shown to be Germany, from where wild boar had been introduced to Sweden, Oeland (Thomas, 1911a:140).
Distribution:N Africa in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia; anciently introduced into Egypt and N Sudan where now absent. All states of mainland Europe east to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, W Russia (European Russia and Caucasus Mtns), and Ukraine; extinct in Ireland, Scandinavia, and United Kingdom but reintroduced into England, S Finland, and S Sweden; anciently introduced into Corsica and Sardinia. In Asia present in Burma, Cambodia, China (but absent from Tibetan Plateau, Singkiang, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, and Ordos Plateau), India, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java east to Bali and Sumbawa Isls), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan (including Riukiu Isls), W Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Laos, Malaysia (peninsular Malaya only), Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia (S Siberia and Soviet Far East), Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. Widespread as feral populations in South Africa, Indonesia (Lesser Sunda Isls), Australia, USA, West Indies, Central and South America and numerous oceanic islands, including Andaman Isls and Mauritius (Indian Ocean) and Hawaiian, Galapagos and Fiji Isls (Pacific Ocean). Feral and domestic populations of Molucca Isls, New Guinea and Solomon Isls thought to originate from hybrids between scrofa and celebensis.
Status:IUCN Vulnerable as S. s. riukiuanus, otherwise Lower Risk (lc).
Comments:Revised by Genov (1999) and Groves (1981a, 2003). Treatment of majori as a subspecies follows Randi et al. (1996). The species can be partitioned into the following divisions (Genov, 1999; Groves and Grubb 1993): cristatus division (including also davidi), leucomystax division (including also moupinensis, riukiuanus, sibiricus, taivanus, and ussuricus), nominate scrofa division (including also algira, attila, libycus, majori, meridionalis, and nigripes), and vittatus division. For systematics, origin, and distribution of feral populations see Groves (1981a), Lever (1985), Uerpmann (1987), and Vigne (1988). Hardjasasmita (1987) recognised floresianus, milleri and papuensis as subspecies, but Sus scrofa floresianus Jentink, 1905 is a junior secondary homonym of Microsus floresianus Heude, 1899, a subspecies of Sus celebensis. Corbet and Hill (1992) listed the domestic pig as a separate species, Sus domesticus, from Sus scrofa on grounds of utility.
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Offspring:

SUBSPECIES scrofa

SUBSPECIES algira

SUBSPECIES attila

SUBSPECIES cristatus

SUBSPECIES davidi

SUBSPECIES leucomystax

SUBSPECIES libycus

SUBSPECIES majori

SUBSPECIES meridionalis

SUBSPECIES moupinensis

SUBSPECIES nigripes

SUBSPECIES riukiuanus

SUBSPECIES sibiricus

SUBSPECIES taivanus

SUBSPECIES ussuricus

SUBSPECIES vittatus

Synonyms:


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