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SPECIES Dryomys nitedula

Author:Pallas, 1778.
Citation:Nova Spec. Quad. Glir. Ord.: 88.
Common Name:Forest Dormouse
Type Locality:Russia, lower Volga River
Distribution:Europe, the Middle East and C Asia: SE Germany (Faltin, 1988), Switzerland (Catzeflis, 1995b), Austria (Niethammer, 1960; Spitzenberger, 1983; Spitzenberger et al., 1995), Czech Republic and Slovakia (Andĕra, 1987, 1995; Kratochvíl, 1967; Obuch, 1998), Poland (Daoud, 1989; Jurczyszyn and Wolk, 1998; Kosior, 1996; Nowakowski, 2000; Nowakowski and Boratynski, 2001; Pucek, 1983b); Ukraine (Bezrodny, 1991) and Belorus (Serńanin, 1961) north to Lithuania (Balciauskas, 1996; Juskaitis, 1995a) and Latvia (Pil~ts, 1995), Russia east to Kazan region and upper Volga River, south to lower Dnepr River, mouth of Volga River, and Caucasus Mtns (Gromov and Erbajeva, 1995; Licha…ev, 1972; Ognev, 1947; Vereshchagin, 1959; also Kuznetsov, 1965; Pavlinov and Rossolimo, 1987), Italy (Amori et al., 1995, 1999; Filippucci, 1986; Paolucci et al., 1987), Hungary (Bakó et al., 1998; Kryštufek and Vohralík, 1994), Slovenia (Kryštufek, 1991; Kryštufek and Vohralík, 1994), Croatia (Tvrtkoviƒ et al., 1995), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro (Gazaryan, 1985; Krystufek, 1985a; Kryštufek and Vohralík; 1994; Petrov, 1992), Romania (Istrate, 1998; Kryštufek and Vohralík, 1994), Moldavia (Lozan, 1970), Albania (Prigioni, 1996), Macedonia (Petrov, 1992), Bulgaria (Mitev et al., 1994; Peshev, 1996; Peshev and Mitev, 1979; Vohralík , 1985), Greece (Ondrias, 1966; Sofianidou and Vohralík, 1991; Vohralík and Sofianidou, 1987, 1992a), Turkey (Kryštufek and Vohralík, 2001; Mursalo—lu, 1973b; Obuch, 2001; Pamukoglu and Albayrak, 1996), Arabia (Harrison and Bates, 1991), W and E Syria (Obuch, 2001; von Lehmann, 1965), N Israel (Atallah, 1978; Mendelssohn and Yom-Tov, 1999; Nevo and Amir, 1961a, 1964; Qumsiyeh, 1996), N Iraq (Jawdat, 1977), Iran (Lay, 1967; Obuch, 2001), Afghanistan (Hassinger, 1973), N Pakistan (Roberts, 1977, 1997); Tajikistan (Allobergenov, 1986; Davydov, 1984), Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and C Kazakhstan north to the S Altai Gobi (see Gromov and Erbajeva, 1995; Kuznetsov, 1965; Ognev, 1947; Pavlinov and Rossolimo, 1987), the Tarbagaty Mtns east to the eastern limit of the Tien Shan Mtns in Xinjiang, China (Ma et al., 1981, 1987; Wang, 2003; Wang and Yang, 1983); perhaps Lebanon (Lewis et al., 1967). In Europe see also Kryštufek (1999b), Kryštufek and Vohralík (1994) and Storch (1978a).
Status:IUCN – Lower Risk (nt).

There has been no critical revision of this species throughout its range, and D. nitedula may actually contain two or more species. An allozymic and biometric study by Filippucci et al. (1995) of southern populations indicates that the Israeli population probably represents a separate species, a conclusion supported by ecological data (Nevo and Amir, 1961b) and phallic and bacular morphology (Simson et al., 1995). It would have been treated as a species here, but unfortunately no name has been given to this population. Historically, the Israeli population has been included in D. n. phrygius (described from Murat Dagi, W Turkey), but Filippucci et al. (1995) showed that the two populations are morphologically different, and topotypes of D. n. phrygius clustered with the European population from Turkish Thrace. Mursalo—lu (1973b) suggested that the E Anatolia (Turkey) population represents a separate species, D. pictus, originally described from Kohrud, south of the Caspian Sea, Iran (Krystufek and Vohralík, 2001). Documented comparisons with representative geographic samples of D. nitedula are critical, as are comparisons with the NC Iranian population from the type locality of pictis to determine if that name applies. For synonyms see Ellerman and Morrison-Scott (1951) and Corbet (1978c).

Rossolimo et al. (1990) reviewed D. nitedula, including illustrations of live animal, distributional, morphological, ecological, behavioral and other characteristics. Taxonomy of subspecies occuring in the independent republics of the former USSR studied by Rossolimo (1971). Taxonomic study and key to subspecies in Europe provided by Roesler and Witte (1969), in Serbia and Montenegro by Kryštufek (1985a), in Greece and SE Europe by Ondrias (1966), and in the independant republics of the former USSR by Ognev (1947). Morphometric study of Bulgarian populations given by Mitev et al. (1994), Peshev and Delov (1995b), and Markov (2001b). Markov found significant sexual dimorphism within Bulgarian populations, an uncommon finding within the family, whereas Mitev et al. (1994) found no significant sexual dimorphism. Comparison of dental pattern with fossil Dryomys from Poland given by Daoud (1993). Chromosomal data, and review of past cytogenetic studies provided by Zima et al. (1995), additional karyotypic data from Bulgaria reported by Peshev and Delov (1995a), Markov et al. (1997); from Macedonia by Zima et al. (1997b); from Turkey by Do—ramaci and KefelĄo—lu (1990); from Italy, Israel and Turkey by Civitelli et al. (1995b); and from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan by Graphodatsky and Fokin (1993). Allozyme variation analyzed by Filippucci and Kotsakis (1995). Phallic and bacular structure and variation studied by Hrabe (1969) and Simson et al. (1995). Illustrations and taxonomic implications of the os and glans penis, and stomach anatomy provided by Kratochvil (1973). Patterns of daily activity, winter activity, and importance of air temperature studied by Nowakowski (1998, 2001b). Detailed maps of European distribution, and discussion and review of distribution and ecology for each European country reported by Kryštufek and Vohralík (1994). Documented in faunal studies made in N Italy (Locatelli and Paolucci, 1996a; Paolucci et al., 1993) and S Italy (Cagnin and Aloise, 1995). Status in the E Baltic region reviewed by Timm et al. (1998) and discussed in a review of ecological strategies of Baltic rodents by Miljutin (1998). Recorded from Pleistocene sediments in Europe (Horacek, 1987; Kowalski, 2001).




    angelus (Thomas, 1906)
    aspromontis Lehmann, 1963
    bilkjewiczi Ognev and Heptner, 1928
    carpathicus Brohmer, 1927
    caucasicus Ognev and Turov, 1935
    daghestanicus Ognev and Turov, 1935
    diamesus Lehmann, 1959
    dryas (Schreber, 1782)
    intermedius (Nehring, 1902)
    kurdistanicus Ognev and Turov, 1935
    milleri Thomas, 1912
    obolenskii Ognev and Worobiev, 1923
    ognevi Heptner and Formozov, 1928
    pallidus Ognev and Turov, 1935
    phrygius Thomas, 1907
    pictus (Blanford, 1875)
    ravijojla Paspalev et al., 1952
    robustus Miller, 1910
    saxatilis Rosanov, 1935
    tanaiticus Ognev and Turov, 1935
    tichomirowi Satunin, 1920
    wingei (Nehring, 1902)

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